Mercy to the Worlds"We have sent you but as a mercy to the worlds." [Al-Qur'an 21:107]

We will go through the following of his amazing biography:

Before his BirthThe year is 570 CE, five years after the death of the Roman Emperor Justinian. An army of men, horses and elephants ruthlessly march towards the city of Makkah, intending to wipe it out of existence. This is the army of the Abysinnian warlord Abraha, who after conquering Yemen is now advancing towards the sacred city of Makkah. One of the notables of Makkah, Abdul-Muttalib, has ordered all the women and children to go up into the mountains and take refuge there whilst the men go and fight. However, the men of Makkah are of no match to the deadly Abysinnian lancers who soon crush their resistance on the borders of the city.

Victory seems imminent for Abraha. Yet when the army advances to the fringes of the city, headed by its lead elephant, the creature stops unexpectedly and refuses to go any further towards the direction of Makkah. No amount of budging will make this beast go towards the direction of conquest, yet when the army turn it around, it is more than willing to go back. Suddenly from the distant horizon, a huge flock of birds is seen. Ominously it makes its way to the scene of the battle. In their beaks and claws the birds carry with them stones. Like lightning do they descend upon the confused army of Abraha and pelt them viciously with the stones. The stones start to cut and tear away at the bodies of these aggressors and reduce them to helpless wretches. The army of the tyrant are sent back in humiliation. It is no less than a miracle which has saved this sacred city.

This event was to be remembered by the Arabs as the year of the elephant and was to hold great significance in the balance of power in Arabia. But it was the event which occurred fifty days later in the same year which was not only to be remembered, but would also change the course of history forever. It was on the 12th day of the month of Rabi' al-Awwal, that in the house of Abdul-Muttalib a child was born. It was the child of Amina, the wife of Abdullah, the son of Abdul-Muttalib. This was the child who would change the way of life of all those around him. This was the child who would unite all people under one way. This was the child who would bring the great empires of the world to a standstill.

This child was Muhammad, the last and final messenger of Allah to mankind.


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His Birth and ChildhoodMohammad's father (Abdullah Ibn Abd Al-Muttalib) died before his wife (Aminah bint Wahab) delivered her baby (Mohammad peace be upon him)

While the prophet peace be upon him was still an infant in his mother womb her mother Aminah bint Wahab said that she felt as if she was a different person because she had no consideration for materialism of the humans. She was just like a specter that hovers in the air. Someone came to her while she was asleep and told her, "You are pregnant with the leader and the Prophet of this Ummah." He came to her again before she gave birth and told her, "Say after you have delivered him, 'I seek protection for him with the One (Allah) from the evil of every jealous.' Then name him 'Muhammad'. "

Thus did Aminah continue to see dreams. And more than once did the dreams give her glad tidings, strengthen her, encourage her to be patient, console her and elevate her stand and that of the pregnancy she was carrying. The delivery day was a great day. It was on the twelfth day of Rabee'ul-awwal at dawn.This very time has its meaning and significance. It has its dimensions in the horizons of time. It was the dawn that removed the darkness from mankind, the accumulated darkness that had made mankind deviated from the straight path and the darkness of humans' injustice against their fellow humans.

Aminah said "When I delivered him, a light came out with him that illuminated what is between the East and the West. The light illuminated palaces and markets of Syria until I saw the necks of the camels in Basra. I saw three erected flags: one at the East, one at the West and the third over the Ka'bah." [Women around the prophet, Mohammad Ali Qutb]

The name Muhammad was given to the child by his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib. The name was one which was known amongst the Arabs at that time but was not common. The literal meaning of Muhammad is 'the praised one', and it is reported that upon being asked why Abdul-Muttalib had named his grandson so, he replied:

"I did so with the desire that my grandson would be praised by Allah in Heaven and by men on earth." [The History of Islam and the Muslims, Iqbal Mohammed, vol 1 p. 138]

It seems as if the desire of Abdul-Muttalib came true, for it was the name of Muhammad, upon whom be peace, which was to be uttered and praised more times than that of any person in history. In fact it is not only men who praise this remarkable man, but also the Creator of the Heavens and the earth, Allah, and the inhabitants of the heavens, the angels:

"Allah and His angels bless the Prophet. O you who believe! Bless him and salute him with a worthy salutation." [Al-Qur'an 33:56]

The grandson of Abdul-Muttalib was destined to become the greatest man ever to live.

He was nursed by Haleemah As-Sadiyya who breast-fed him and witnessed some of his blessings and miracles at the time he lived under her care in the dwellings of Bani Sa'd. 

Muhammad's early life was wrought with unhappiness as he never saw his father Abdullah who died before he was born. At the age of six his mother, Aminah passed away and he was entrusted into the care of his beloved grandfather Abdul-Muttalib. However, at the age of twelve, Abdul-Muttalib also passed away and Abu Talib, the uncle of Muhammad, peace be upon him, took charge of him. With such distress and heartache so early on in life, one would imagine that this boy would grow up to be rebellious and troublesome, as is the case in so many of our societies today. But this was obviously not to be.


With some additions from the book of Mohammad Qutb "women around the prophet"

Read more about his childhood with the women who raised him:

Aminah Bint Wahab - his mother, Haleemah As-Sadiyyah his nurse, and Barakah the one who took care of him after his mom's death

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The Orphan ChildMuhammad (pbuh) returned to live with his mother in Mecca when he was about three years old. Three years later Aminah decided to take her son to visit his uncles in Yathrib. She told her maid, Barakah, to prepare everything they would need for the long journey, and then they joined one of the caravans going there. They stayed in Yathrib a month and Muhammad (pbuh) enjoyed the visit with his cousins. The climate there was very pleasant and he learned to swim and to fly a kite.

On their way back to Mecca, however, Aminah became ill and died. She was buried in the village at al-Abwa not far from Yathrib. Muhammad (pbuh) returned sadly to Mecca with his mother's maid He was now six years old and had lost both his father and mother. He was then adopted by his grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttalib, who loved him dearly and kept him by his side at all times. It was the custom of 'Abd al-Muttalib to sit on a blanket near the Ka'bah. There he was always surrounded by people who had come to speak to him. No one was allowed to sit on the blanket with him, however, except his grandson Muhammad (pbuh), which shows how close they were to each other. Many times 'Abd al-Muttalib was heard to say: 'This boy will be very important one day.' 
Two years later 'Abd al-Muttalib became ill and Muhammad (pbuh) stayed by him constantly. 'Abd al-Muttalib told his son, Abu Talib, to adopt Muhammad (pbuh) after his death, which he did. Abu Talib had many children of his own,

but Muhammad (pbuh) immediately became part of his family and the favorite child. The time came for Quraysh to prepare a caravan to go to Syria. Abu Talib was going with them and he took Muhammad (pbuh) along. It was Mohammed's first journey to the north. After days of travel, the caravan arrived at a place near Syria where the Romans used to come to trade with the Arabs. Near this marketplace lived a monk called Bahira'. His cell had been used by generations of monks before him and contained ancient manuscripts. 
Bahira' saw the caravan in the distance and was amazed to see that over it was a large white cloud. It was the only cloud in a clear blue sky and it appeared to be shading one of the travelers. The monk was even more surprised to see that the cloud seemed to follow the caravan but disappeared when the person it was shading sat down under a tree. Bahira' knew from the scriptures that a prophet was expected to come after Jesus and it had been his wish to see this prophet before he died.

Realizing that what he had just seen was a miracle, he began to think that his wish might, after all, come true. 
The monk sent an invitation to the Meccans to come and eat with him. The Arabs were surprised because they often passed by and Bahira' had never invited them before. When the group was all together for the meal, the monk said, 'Is this everyone?' 'No', someone said, 'a boy was left watching the camels.' Bahira' insisted that the boy should join them. The boy was Muhammad (pbuh). When he arrived Bahira' said nothing, but watched him all through the meal. He noticed many things about his appearance which fitted the description in the old manuscripts. Later on he took him aside and asked Muhammad (pbuh) many questions. He soon found out how he felt about the idols in the Ka'bah. When Bahira tried to make him swear by them, as the Arabs used to do, Muhammad (pbuh) said, 'There is nothing in this world that I hate more'. They talked together about Allah and about Mohammed's life and family. What was said made Bahira certain that this was indeed the Prophet who would come after Jesus.

Then the monk went to Abu Talib and asked him how he was related to Muhammad (pbuh). Abu Talib told him that Muhammad (pbuh) was his son. Bahira replied that this could not be so because the boy was destined to grow up an orphan, and he ordered Abu Talib to watch over Muhammad (pbuh) with great care. There are many stories told about Mohammed's youth. Some tell of how he used to take the family's sheep to graze and was always kind to them. While they grazed he would sit thinking about the mysteries of nature. Unlike those around him, he never worshipped the idols and never swore by them. 
He also wondered why people were always struggling for power and money, and this saddened him and made him feel lonely, but he kept his feelings to himself. He was a quiet, thoughtful boy, and rarely played with other boys of his age. On one occasion, however, Muhammad (pbuh) went with some of the boys to a wedding in Mecca.

When he reached the house he heard the sounds of music and dancing but just as he was about to enter he suddenly felt tired and, sitting down, fell asleep. He didn't wake up until late the next morning and thus missed the celebrations. In this way Allah prevented him from doing anything foolish for He was keeping Muhammad (pbuh) for something much more important.


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Before the ProphethoodIt was Abu Talib who then reared and brought him up. Abu Talib was a trader and businessman and he sometimes took his nephew along with him on his trade journeys. It was these trade journeys which eventually formed the alliance between Muhammad and his future wife Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her. Khadija was a wealthy widow from Makkah who was known for her noble character and morals. Soon Muhammad, peace be upon him, was working for Khadija as a manager for her trade caravans. It was his honesty and efficiency which led to Khadija's proposal, and soon after Muhammad had returned from a trade journey to Syria, they were married.

The early life of Muhammad, peace be upon him, before his prophethood, is unknown to most people. His life is highlighted by his sublime character and noble manners. The world of Muhammad, peace be upon him, was a world of idolatry, a world in which women and slaves had no rights whatsoever, a world in which men would cheat each other for a few dirhams.

However Muharnmed, upon whom be peace, was not like those around him. He was not known to swear or talk in a vile manner, nor was he known to drink or gamble. His honesty surpassed that of all others and he was known with the title of al-Amin (the trustworthy). In fact it was this quality of honesty which attracted so many people to his noble message.

The nature of the Arabs at the time of Muhammad, peace be upon him, was very barbaric and they would fight over the smallest of things, such as one tribes camel grazing on the land of another tribe. This would often result in wars which would last for years and take thousands of lives. In the year 605 CE the Kaabah was accidentally burnt down and a massive reconstruction programme had to be initiated. Many people were involved in it's rebuilding. However, upon its completion, the issue of replacing the black stone in its original place, the south east corner of the Kaabah, arose. Each of the major tribes and clans wanted the honour of placing the black stone in its proper place. Civil war loomed over the Arabian peninsula. It was then suggested by Abu Ummayah al-Mughira, one of the elders of Makkah, that the way to settle this dispute was to let the first person to come through the masjid gate the next morning, decide the fate of the matter. Lo and behold the first man to enter the masjid the next morning was indeed Muhammad.

Upon seeing him some of the Arabs exclaimed with joy, "Here is the trustworthy one, we shall agree to his decision - he is Muhammad". Muhammad, peace be upon him, asked for a sheet or a robe to be brought to him and to have the black stone placed in the middle of it. He then asked the elders of each of the major tribes to lift up the sheet from each of the corners. The elders did as they were instructed and took the black stone over to the south east corner. Muhammad, peace be upon him, then took the stone and placed it firmly in its resting place And so it was Muhammad, upon him be peace, who with wisdom and honesty saved the Arabs from self-destruction. [The History of Islam and the Muslims, Iqbal Mohammed, vol 1 pp. 163-166]


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Receiving the Revelation for the First TimeMuhammad (pbuh) believed that there was only one Allah, Creator of the sun, the moon, the earth, the sky, and of all living things, and that all people should worship only Him. Muhammad (pbuh) would often leave the crowded city and go to the cave in Mount Hira'. He liked to be alone there, away from all thoughts of the world and daily life, eating and drinking little. In his fortieth year, Muhammad (pbuh) left Mecca to spend Ramadan,The traditional month of retreat, in the cave. In the second half of Ramadan, Allah began to reveal His message for mankind through Muhammad (pbuh). This first Revelation occurred as follows. The Archangel Gabriel came to Muhammad (pbuh) in the cave and commanded him to 'Read'. Muhammad (pbuh) replied 'I cannot read.' At this the Archangel took Muhammad (pbuh) in his arms and pressed him to him until it was almost too much to bear. He then released him and said again 'Read.' 'I cannot', replied Muhammad (pbuh), at which the Archangel embraced him again. For the third time the Archangel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) to read, but still he said he could not and was again embraced. On releasing him this time, however, the Archangel Gabriel said: "Read: In the Name of thy Lord who createth, Createth man from a clot. Read: And thy Lord is the Most Generous Who teacheth by the pen, Teacheth man that which he knew not. (Al Quran 96:1-5) Muhammad (pbuh) repeated these verses, just as the Archangel had said them.

When the Archangel was sure Muhammad (pbuh) knew them by heart, he went away. Now that he was alone Muhammad (pbuh) could not understand what had happened to him. He was terribly afraid and rushed out of the cave. Perhaps the cave was haunted? Perhaps the devil had taken a hold of his mind? But he was stopped by a voice from heaven which said;  O Muhammad (pbuh) you are the Messenger of Allah, and I am Gabriel.' He looked up at the sky and wherever he turned he saw the Archangel Gabriel. 
In a state of confusion he returned home to Khadijah. When his wife saw him she became very worried as he began to shiver, as though in a fever. He asked her to wrap him in blankets, which she did. After a while he recovered sufficiently to tell her what had happened at Hira'. Khadijah believed all that he told her and with great respect said:'Be happy, 0 son of my uncle and be confident. Truly I swear by Allah who has my soul in His hands, that you will be our people's Prophet.' Muhammad (pbuh),

the Messenger of Allah, was eased by her faith in him, but after all that had happened he was exhausted and felt fast asleep. 
Khadijah left the Prophet (pbuh) sleeping and went to see her cousin, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal, to ask him what he thought about all that had happened. Waraqah was a very wise man who had read many books and had become a Christian after studying the Bible. He told Khadijah that Muhammad (pbuh) had been chosen by Allah to be His Messenger. Just as the Archangel Gabriel had come to Moses before and had ordered him to guide his people, so, too, would Muhammad (pbuh) be the Prophet of his people. But Waraqah warned that all the people would not listen to the Prophet and some would mistreat his followers. He must, however, be patient because he had a great message for all the world. From that day on, the Archangel Gabriel came often to the Prophet (pbuh) and the verses he taught him, the message from Allah to man, were later written down, and are known to us as the Holy Koran.


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The First MuslimsAfter that momentous day in the month of Ramadan, Revelation came again and again to the Prophet (peace be upon him). He understood now what he had to do and prepared himself for what was to come. Only a strong and brave man, helped by Allah, can be a true prophet because people often refuse to listen to Allah's message. Khadijah (May Allah be pleased with her) was the first to believe the Prophet (peace be upon him) and accept as true what he brought from Allah. Through her, Allah made things easier for the Prophet (peace be upon him). Khadijah strengthened him, helped him spread his message, and stood up to the people who were against him.

Then Revelation ceased for a time. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was upset and unhappy, thinking that Allah had left him, or that he might have angered Allah in some way so that Allah no longer thought him worthy of His message. However, the Archangel Gabriel came back to him and brought this surah, or chapter, of the Koran: 

"By the morning hours,And by the night when it is stillest, Thy Lord hath neither forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee, And verily the Last will be better for thee than the First. And verily thy Lord will give unto thee so that thou wilt be content. Did He not find thee an orphan and protect thee? Did He not find thee wandering and guide thee? Did He not find thee destitute and enrich thee? Therefore the orphan oppress not, Therefore the beggar drive not away, And as for thy Lord's blessing, declare it". (Al Quran 93:1-11)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) began to speak secretly of Allah's message to those Who were close to him and whom he could trust. At that time Mecca was going through hard times. There was very little food to be had. Abu Talib, the Prophet's uncle, who had taken care of him after his grandfather's death, was finding it very difficult to feed his large family. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said that he and another uncle, al-'Abbas, who was a rich man, would each bring up one of Abu Talib's children in order to help him. The Prophet (peace be upon him) took 'Ali and his uncle took Ja'far. 
One day, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) was outside the city, the Archangel Gabriel appeared to him. The Archangel kicked the side of a hill and a spring of water began to flow out. He then began to wash himself in the running water to show the Prophet (peace be upon him) the ritual ablution to be made before prayer. Then the Archangel showed him all the positions of Muslim prayer-the various movements and things to be said with each movement. The Prophet (peace be upon him) returned home and taught all these things first to Khadijah and then to his followers. Since then Muslims have continued to purify themselves before prayer by performing the ritual ablution and have followed the same movements and prayers first performed by the Prophet (peace be upon him). To begin with, though, only the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his wife knew of these things. Then one day 'Ali entered the room and found the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Khadijah praying.

He was puzzled and asked what they were doing. The Prophet (peace be upon him) explained to him that they were praising Allah and giving thanks to Him. That night 'Ali stayed up thinking about all that the Prophet (pbuh) had said; he had great admiration and respect for his cousin. Finally he came to a decision and the next day he went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and told him that he wanted to follow him. Thus Khadijah was the first woman to embrace Islam, the teachings which the Prophet (peace be upon him) brought from Allah, and 'Ali was the first young man. Shortly after they were joined by Zayd ibn Harithah, a slave, freed and adopted by the Prophet (peace be upon him). 
The Prophet (peace be upon him) began to leave Mecca with Ali in order to pray. One day Abu Talib happened to pass by and when he saw them he stopped and asked them what they were doing. The Prophet (peace be upon him) told him that they were praying and following the same religion as Abraham. He explained that, like Abraham, he had been ordered to guide the people to Allah's truth. Abu Talib looked at his son, 'Ali, and said: 'Muhammad (peace be upon him) would never make you do anything that was wrong. Go with him. But I cannot leave the religion I now follow and which was followed by my father.'

Then he turned to the Prophet (peace be upon him), saying, 'Even so, I promise you, Muhammad (peace be upon him), that no one will hurt you as long as I am alive.' And with that Abu Talib went on his way. At about this time the news of Muhammad (peace be upon him) being the Prophet reached an honest, wise, and respected merchant of Mecca called Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him). He knew Muhammad (peace be upon him) well and believed he could never lie, so he went to find out for himself if the story were true. The Prophet (peace be upon him) told him that he had indeed been sent by Allah to teach everyone to worship the one true Allah. On hearing this from the Prophet's own lips Abu Bakr knew it to be the truth and became a believer instantly. Later the Prophet (peace be upon him) was reported to have said that everyone he ever invited to accept Islam showed signs of disbelief and doubt, except Abu Bakr; when he was told of it he did not hold back or hesitate.

Because of his wisdom, honesty, and kindness people had always turned to Abu Bakr for advice. He was, therefore, a man of some influence and through him many people came to Islam. Among these was Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas as, the uncle of Aminah, the Prophet's mother. The night before Abu Bakr came to visit him and tell him about Islam, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas dreamt that he was walking in darkness. As he walked he saw the moon and when he looked at it he saw 'Ali, Abu Bakr, and Zayd, the Prophet's freed slave, beckoning to him to come and join them. When Abu Bakr told him about the Prophet's religion, he understood the meaning of his dream and went at once to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and declared himself a Muslim. He understood that to be a Muslim means to submit oneself to Allah's Will and to serve only Him. Another person brought to Islam by Abu Bakr was Bilal. One night Abu Bakr went to the house of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, one of the most important men of Quraysh. Umayyah was out and Abu Bakr found only Umayyah's slave, Bilal, at home. Abu Bakr talked to the slave about Islam and before he left, Bilal, too, had become a Muslim. The number of people following the Prophet (peace be upon him) began to grow. Sometimes they would all go out of the city to the mountains around Mecca to hear him recite the Quran and to be taught by him. This was all done very secretly and only a very few people knew about Islam in those early days.


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The Troubles BeginThree years passed and one day the Archangel Gabriel came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and ordered him to start preaching openly to everyone. So the Prophet (peace be upon him) told the people of Mecca that he had something very important to tell them. He stood on a hillside in Mecca, called Safa, and they gathered around to hear what he had to say. He started by asking them if they would believe him were he to say that an army was about to attack them. They answered that indeed they would, because he never lied. He then told them that he was the Messenger of Allah, sent to show them the right way, and to warn them of terrible punishments if they did not follow him in worshipping only Allah and none other. Abu Lahab, one of the Prophet's uncles who was among the listeners, suddenly stood up and said, 'May you perish! Did you call us here just to tell us this?' At this, Allah sent to the Prophet (peace be upon him) the following Surah: 
"The Power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish. His wealth and gains will not save him. He shall roast at a flaming fire, And his wife, the carrier of firewood Will have upon her neck a rope of palm-fibre". (Al Quran 111:1-5) 
Then the crowd dispersed and the Prophet (peace be upon him) was left alone. A few days later the Prophet (peace be upon him) tried again. A feast was prepared in his house for all of his uncles. After the meal he spoke to them and said, 'O sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib! I know of no Arab who has come to his people with a better message than mine. I have brought you the best news for this life and the next.

Allah has ordered me to call you to Him. So which of you will help me?' All the men kept silent. Then 'Ali, his cousin, jumped up and said: 'O Prophet of Allah! I will help you.' Then the men all got up and left, laughing as they went because only one young boy had agreed to help the Prophet (peace be upon him). 

His message ignored by most of the people and his uncles, the Prophet (peace be upon him) continued to meet his friends secretly in a house near the hill of Safa. There they prayed together and he taught them about the religion of Islam. But even though they kept to themselves, they were sometimes abused by those who would not believe. From one such incident, however, an unexpected conversion to Islam took place. One day, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) was returning home, speaking with his followers, he met Abu Jahl, a leader of Quraysh, who hated the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his teachings. Abu Jahl started to insult him and to speak spitefully of Islam, but the Prophet (peace be upon him) made no reply and went on his way.

Later, Hamzah, one of the Prophet's uncles, who was a strong and brave warrior of whom people were quite afraid, heard how his nephew had been insulted. Filled with rage, he ran straight to the Ka'bah where Abu Jahl was sitting among the people and struck him a violent blow in the face with his bow. Hamzah then shouted, 'Will you insult him when I follow his religion, and I say what he says? Hit me back if you can!' Some people got up to help Abu Jahl but he stopped them saying, 'Leave Hamzah alone, for by Allah, I have insulted his nephew badly. 'From that moment on Hamzah (May Allah be pleased with him) followed the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and with his conversion to Islam Quraysh realized that the Prophet (pbuh) had a strong supporter and so for a while they stopped persecuting him. Soon, however, the leaders of Quraysh became angry again, when they saw that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was going ahead with his teaching. A group of them went to his uncle, Abu Talib, who had promised to protect him. They told him to ask the Prophet (peace be upon him) to stop attacking their gods and their way of life, and in return they would let him do as he wished with his religion. 

After a time they saw that there was no change, so they went back to Abu Talib and this time they told him that if he did not stop his nephew, they would fight them both. Abu Talib was very upset by this quarrel among his people, but he could not break his word to his nephew. He sent for the Prophet (peace be upon him) and told him what had happened, saying, 'Spare me and spare yourself; do not put a greater burden on me than I can bear.' The Prophet (peace be upon him) thought that his uncle might abandon him and that he would no longer have his support, but nevertheless he answered, O my uncle, by Allah, if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left in return for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up until Allah makes Truth victorious, or I die in His service. Abu Talib was deeply moved by this answer. He told the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he would support him for as long as he lived and encouraged him to go on spreading Allah's message.

From that time on, however hard the leaders of Quraysh tried to convince Abu Talib to stop protecting his nephew, he always refused to listen to them. In order to get rid of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his followers, his enemies started persecuting those Muslims who were poor or weak, or had no powerful friends. One such person wasBilal (May Allah be pleased with him), the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. His master would take him out into the desert, tie him up, and leave him in the sun with a large stone on his chest. Fortunately Abu Bakr(May Allah be pleased with him) was passing by one day and saw Umayyah torturing Bilal, so he bought him from his master for a large sum of money and then set him free. But not all persecuted Muslims were as fortunate as Bilal. Many suffered, but all of them endured it patiently, knowing that they were doing the right thing and that their reward in the life to come would be greater' than any happiness they could find on earth.

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The Year of SorrowThe Prophet (pbuh) and his followers went back to a normal way of life but the years of hardship had made Khadijah very weak.She became ill and soon afterwards she died. Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) lost his beloved wife and friend, the first person to accept Islam and support him. She had been a refuge from all his troubles and, through her good-heartedness, the best company in his suffering. He had loved her very much. This happened in 619 A.D., the year which became known as the 'Year of Sorrow'. Soon after this, the Prophet Muhammad's uncle and protector, Abu Talib, also died. Abu Talib had been one of the most respected men in Mecca-one of the elders of Quraysh. Even though he had never been a follower of Islam, he had protected the Prophet (pbuh) against his enemies. Not only was this a sad occasion for the Prophet (pbuh) but also a dangerous one. According to Arab custom anyone who is under the protection of another is safe so long as his protector lives. Now, with the death of his uncle, the Prophet's protection was gone.

The Prophet's enemies rejoiced to see him so sad, without a wife to console and comfort him, and without his uncle to protect him. They began to treat him worse than ever before. Even small children insulted him. One young man actually threw some filth on the Prophet's head, but the Prophet (pbuh) went home without making anything of it. When one of his daughters rushed, weeping, to wash it away, he comforted her saying, 'Do not weep my little girl, for Allah will protect your father.' Abu Talib had been the Prophet's last tie with Quraysh and the Prophet (pbuh) now felt that Islam could make no further progress in Mecca because the hearts of Quraysh were closed against him. He decided, therefore, to travel to Ta'if where he hoped to find support. He walked all the way to the town, which was seventy kilometers away. There he spoke in all the places where people gathered, but no one listened to him. He met the leaders of the three most important tribes but they would not listen either. Not only did they take no notice of what he said,

but they laughed at him and ordered their slaves to insult him and pelt him with stones. 
Sadly, the Prophet (pbuh) left the city and found a quiet place near a wall for Utbah & Shaibah sons of Rabiy'ah on the edge of town where he could be alone. There he prayed to Allah in these words: " O Allah, to Thee I complain of my weakness, helplessness and lowliness before men. 0 Most Merciful, Thou art the Lord of the weak, and Thou art my Lord. To whom wouldst Thou leave my fate? To a stranger who insults me or to an enemy to whom Thou hast given power over me? If Thou art not angry with me, I care not what happens to me. Thy favor alone is my objective. I take refuge in the Light of Thy countenance by which the darkness is illumined and on which this world and the other depend, lest Thy anger descend upon me or Thy wrath light upon me. It is for Thee to be satisfied until Thou art well pleased. There is no power and no might save through Thee." The wall near which the Prophet (pbuh) was sitting belonged to a garden owned by two brothers.

When they (the sons of Rabiy'ah) heard his prayer, they were very sorry for him and sent one of their slaves to him with a dish filled with grapes. Before he began to eat, the Prophet (pbuh) said 'Bismillah'-'In the Name of Allah.' The servant, whose name was 'Addas, was very surprised at these words, which he had never heard before. 'By Allah', said 'Addas, 'this is not the way the people of this country speak.' 'Then from what country do you come, 'Addas, and what is your religion?' asked the Prophet (pbuh). 'I am a Christian from the Assyrian town of Nineveh', he replied. 'From the town of that good man Jonah, son of Matta', added the Prophet 'How do you know about him?' asked 'Addas. 'He is my brother-he was a Prophet and I am a Prophet', answered the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). 'Addas bent down and kissed the Prophet's head, his hands and his feet, because now he saw that he was truly a Prophet. The Prophet (pbuh) then walked back to Mecca. He was now able to put up with everything patiently for he knew that Allah would never leave him.

His journey to Ta'if had not been in vain for 'Addas, the Christian, had become a Muslim, and this was to be the beginning of great changes.

Quoted from here with slight modifications

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The Night Journey and the Ascent to HeavenAt the tenth year after Mohammad peace be upon him had became a prophet, Allah wanted to console his prophet especially after he lost his uncle Abu-Talib and Khadijah his kind and caring wife who was supporting him in his way of calling to Allah. One night as the Prophet (peace be upon him) lay sleeping in the same spot where 'Abd al-Muttalib used to sleep, next to the Ka'bah, he was woken by the Archangel Gabriel. Later the Prophet (peace be upon him) described what happened: 'I sat up and he took hold of my arm. I stood beside him and he brought me to the door of the mosque where there was a white animal for me to ride.' 
The Prophet (peace be upon him) told of how he mounted the animal and, with the Archangel Gabriel at his side, was transported from Mecca to the mosque called al-Aqsa, in far away Jerusalem. There the Prophet (peace be upon him) found Abraham, Moses, and Jesus among a group of Prophets. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) acted as their leader, or imam, in prayer. Then he was brought two jugs, one containing wine and the other milk.

He chose the milk and refused the wine. At this, the Archangel Gabriel said, 'You have been rightly guided to the fitrah, the true nature of man, and so will your people be, Muhammad. Wine is forbidden to you. The Prophet (peace be upon him) also related how they passed through Heaven's gates and saw countless angels. Among them was Malik, the Keeper of Hell, who never smiles. Malik stepped forward and showed the Prophet (peace be upon him) a view of Hell and the terrible plight of those who suffer in that place. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) was taken up by the angels, through the seven Heavens, one by one Along the way he again saw Jesus, Moses, and Abraham, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) said that he had never seen a man more like himself than Abraham. He also saw John, called Yahya in Arabic, Joseph or Yusef, Enoch, that is Idris, and Aaron. At last he reached the Lote Tree of the Uttermost, the sidrat al-muntaha where no Prophet had been before. Here the Prophet (peace be upon him) received Revelation of what Muslims believe.

"The Messenger believeth in that which hath been revealed unto him from his Lord and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allah and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers-We make no distinction between any of His messengers-and they say: We hear, and we obey. Grant us Thy forgiveness, our Lord. Unto Thee is the homecoming". (Al Quran 2:285)

Then he was taken into the Light of the Divine Presence of Allah, and was instructed that Muslims should pray fifty times a day. The Prophet (peace be upon him) recalled: " On my way back I passed by Moses and what a good friend to you he was! He asked me how many prayers had I been ordained to perform. When I told him fifty, he said, 'Prayer is a serious matter and your people are weak, so go back to your Lord and ask Him to reduce the number for you and your community.' I did so and He took away ten. Again I passed by Moses and he said the same again; and so it went on until only five prayers for the whole day and night were left.

Moses again gave me the same advice. I replied that I had been back to my Lord and asked him to reduce the number until I was ashamed, and I would not do it again. He of you who performs the five prayers faithfully, will have the reward of fifty prayers.

On the morning following these events and the Prophet's return to Mecca, he told Quraysh what had happened. Most of them said, 'By God! This is ridiculous! A caravan takes a month to go to Syria and a month to return! Can you do that long journey in a single night?' Even many Muslims were amazed by this and wanted the Prophet (peace be upon him) to explain. Some ran with the news to Abu Bakr who said, 'By Allah, if Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself has said so, then it is true. Remember, the Prophet tells us that the word of Allah comes to him directly from heaven to earth at any hour by day or night, and we believe him. Isn't that a greater miracle than what you are now doubting?

Then Abu Bakr went to the mosque and listened to the Prophet's detailed description of Jerusalem. He commented,'You tell the truth, O Prophet of Allah!' From then on, Abu Bakr was honored with the title 'al-Siddiq', which means 'he who gives his word to support the truth'. Others also began to believe the Prophet's story when he went on to describe two caravans he had seen on his way back to Mecca. He told the doubters where he had seen the caravans, what they were carrying and when they would arrive in Mecca. All that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had said was born out when the caravans arrived at the time he said they would, carrying all that he had described. "Glory be to Him, who carried His servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the Far distant place of worship, the Neighborhood which We have blessed, that We might show him some of Our signs, He, only He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing". (Al Quran 17:1)

By the Star when it setteth, Your comrade is not astray, neither deceived, Nor does he speak of his (own) desire. This is naught but a revelation revealed, Taught him by one mighty in power, very strong; he stood poised, being on the uppermost horizon, Then drew near and came down, two bows'-length away, or nearer, Then revealed to His servant that which He revealed. His heart lies not of what he saw; What, will you then dispute with him what he sees? Indeed, he saw him yet another time By the Lote- Tree of the utmost Boundary Near which is the Garden of Abode When there covered the Lote- Tree that which covered; his eye turne not aside, nor yet was overbold. Verily, he saw one of the greatest signs of his Lord.(Al Quran 52:1-18)

Quoted with slight modifications from here

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His Noble Character - Quick View -It is the character of the Prophet Muhammad which was one of the main reasons for the spread of his noble message. As mentioned before, he never swore and he never spoke vilely about anyone. But after his appointment as a prophet of Allah, he not only observed these excellent qualities for himself, but also ordered all the Muslims to live their lives according to these noble traits. This is why we find that lying and cheating are totally forbidden in Islam, and about lying the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:

"Lying leads to obscenity and obscenity leads to the fire of hell." [Recorded in Sahih Muslim]

For the Arabs to stop cheating and lying it would mean that the whole of their lives would have to be turned upside down. Cheating and lying during business transactions was a regular practice for the Arabs, and it was from this behaviour that the racist slogan "you cheating Arab!" was derived. Backbiting and slandering one another were totally forbidden and the Prophet was instructed by Allah to inform the people that backbiting another Muslim was like eating:

" ... the flesh of your dead brother." [Al-Qur'an 49:12]

Muhammad, peace be upon him, was known to laugh very little, if at all. Rather when he was happy he would express his delight by smiling and he is reported to have said:

"Too much laughter kills the heart." [Reported by at-Tirmidhi and Ahmad]

Likewise when he was angry, he would not fly off the handle or start a tantrum, but rather the complexion of his face would simply turn red.

His Generosity:  

The generosity of Muhammad, peace be upon him, was so great that one of his companions, Ibn Abbas described his huge generosity as being like "the blowing wind." [Recorded in Sahih Muslim] To give charity during those days was outdated and those who gave charity were very rare in that troublesome society. But the trends of society were nothing to this man, who simply wished to attain the pleasure of Allah by helping those who were less fortunate then himself. In fact his giving of charity often meant that he had to sacrifice the pleasures of life for himself and his family. His wife Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, reported that "three consecutive days would not go by without the family of Muhammad not eating their fill." [Recorded in al-Bukhari]

His Relationships with Women:

The relationship between Muhammad, peace be upon him, and women has been subject to vicious attack by many western writers. He has been accused of being sexually immoral and depraved by his enemies. Many a feminist has accused him of depriving women of their rights. Yet the reality of this man is unknown to many of these ignorant people. When Muhammad, upon whom be peace, left the cave of Hira, trembling and shaking like a leaf, who was the first person that this alleged male chauvinist turned to? When spreading the message of Islam who was the first person to respond to this so called patriarchal religion? The answer is Khadija, his wife, a woman. It was Khadija who comforted him during these initial days of anxiety. It was Khadija who reassured him of his role by accepting his message. And it was Khadija who gained so much respect and admiration from this remarkable man.

Pre-Islamic Arabia was characterised by the evil crime of burying baby girls alive because they were seen as a shame to the family. Yet it was this man Muhammad who spoke out vehemently against this great social crime. In fact he stated the great blessing and reward of having and rearing female children:

"Whomsoever brings up two girls upon this religion, then me and him shall be like this in paradise [and he joined his forefinger with his middle finger]." [Recorded in Sahih Muslim]

His conduct with women was not like that of the men today, rather he treated the women as they deserved to be treated. He did not openly parade women about like cattle (for example, in pre-Islamic Arabia women were subjected to intolerable humiliation, and they were often paraded naked during the festivals which were held by the pagan Arabs), as was done before the coming of Islam nor did he seek to please them by showing off his masculinity. Rather he as described as being "more shy than a virgin behind a veil." [Recorded in Sahih Muslim] For a man who achieved so much in his lifetime it would be expected (by corrupt western standards!) that Muhammad would abuse his power with regards to women. Yet we do not find a single instance in his life in which he went out raping and destroying the honour of the women folk who were captured. Rather it was the women of Arabia who came forward in their droves to accept the message of this man, who came to liberate humanity from the oppression of this world. Despite the constant barrage of distortion against Islam, it is a fact that more then 70% of those people who become Muslim in the west, are women.

His Worshiping:

By the time of his death in the year 632 CE almost the whole of the Arabian peninsula had been conquered. A million square miles lay at his feet. Yet such was the humble nature of this man that he would mend his own shoes, sew his own clothes and milk his own goats. Such behaviour has become awe inspiring for millions of people and has thus led them to the beauty of this religion. As a leader for his people he was a great example of humility and mercy. When his companions walked past his house they could hear him crying in his prayer, so much so that it was like a "boiling pot." [Reported by Abu Dawud] He would continuously pray during the nights to such an extent that his feet would swell up. Upon observing this his wife Aisha asked him, "Why do you pray so much, when your Lord has forgiven your past sins and your future sins?", and the reply from the Prophet, peace be upon him, was:

"Should I therefore not be a grateful servant of my Lord?" [Recorded in al-Bukhari]

Conquest of Makkah:

The famous conquest of Makkah is an event which shall be remembered for the justice and mercy which were shown that day. Even though he had the option to punish those who were guilty of oppressing the Muslims, Muhammad, peace be upon him, issued a general amnesty by which many people were forgiven. It was this behaviour which saw the amazing acceptance of Islam by almost the whole population of Makkah literally overnight. How different is this behaviour from that of the non-Muslim conquerors such as the crusaders, who upon the conquest of Jerusalem; raped, looted and burnt their way to success.

His Unique Leadership:

With leadership and conquest comes fame but fame did not affect this man whose only aim was to establish the religion of Allah on earth. His position as a messenger of Allah was not exaggerated. His insistence on being a mere mortal like others was firm. And his desire to single out Allah alone for worship was stressed wholeheartedly. It is for this reason that he ordered his followers not to make any pictorial representations or statues of him. Before his death he condemned the "Jews and Christians for taking the graves of their prophets and pious people as places of worship" [Recorded in al-Bukhari]. By implication this made it prohibited for the Muslims to take the grave of Muhammad, upon whom be peace, as a place of worship. For all those who call the Muslims 'Muhammadans', then this is the response which we as worshippers of Allah bring forward. Throughout history leaders of nations, ideologies and empires have often ended up becoming objects of worship. We find statues and pictures of Marx, Lenin, Caesar, Jesus, St Paul, Hitler, Napoleon, Confucius and so many others. Yet despite all the reminders of these people, it is still this man Muhammad, peace be upon him, who has had the most influence upon history, despite the fact that we find no 3-D visual image of him*. This is indeed a mercy from Allah.

The world of the 7th century was a crumbling place. The empires of Rome and Persia were locked in constant battle. The Chinese and Indian civilisations were in moral decline. Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Judaism were all religions which were fast losing momentum. The case of the Arabs was clear to everyone and they were regarded as being at the bottom of this decaying pit. It was among this decadence that Allah sent Muhammad, peace be upon him. He was like the light to this world of ignorance. Like a lamp did he shine in this abyss of darkness. From the confines of Arabia it was his light that would reach the farthest regions of the earth and release the people from their burdens:

"O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good news and a warner. And as a summoner to Allah by His Permission, and as a lamp that gives light." [Al-Qur'an 33:45-46]

"Be thankful for small mercies" goes the saying of old. But the mercy which we have been given is far from small. Rather the greatness of this mercy will enable us to live and die upon a way of success and contentment. This mercy is the way of the Prophet Muhammad and through it we, by the will of Allah, will enjoy an everlasting life to come.

"In the messenger of Allah you have a good example for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much." [Al-Qur'an 33:21]

* This fact has even been attested to by Christians, such as Professor Michael Hart in his book, The 100: The Most Influential Men in History. Despite the fact that Professor Hart casts doubt upon the source of the Prophet's Law, he still cannot help but admit that this man exercised more influence on humanity then anyone else. It is for this reason that he places Muhammad in the No.1 position, even ahead of his Lord Jesus, whom he places 3rd just behind St Paul.

Taken from Sunnah Online with slight additions.

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The Prophet as a HusbandIf we examine the Prophet's behavior with his wives before his Messengership and after, we will
realize the reason. We might also conclude that the Prophet undoubtedly had tended the position of the mothers of the Believers. Just as they say, "There is a lady behind every great man" it should also be said, "The better the horse the better the horseman"

The Prophet (pbuh) was the leader, the teacher and the example of the people, men and women in treating his wives kindly. He was also just in spending the nights in turns with each, expenditure, kindness, honoring them and enduring their anger, jealousy and dispute. He used to visit them every morning to preach and teach them and in the evening for amusement. He would periodically assemble with them in their houses altematively. The Prophet (pbuh) also used to serve in his home and attend to his needs himself.
Now, let us highlight some aspects of the Prophet's life as a husband concerning the affairs of his house in which there are many wives of different races, ages and behaviors living, together. We have to bear in mind that such success and prosperity was not confined to his home. Rather, it encompasses all aspects of life: political, economical social. We might hear about great leaders who achieved many progresses in the field of policy and in leading their own people. Nevertheless, if we investigated their marital life we will discover that they could not deal with their wives even if they had only one. Therefore, we are going to highlight only three aspects of the prophet (pbuh) as a husband:

1- The Prophet, the strait husband.
2- The Prophet, the funny husband.
3- The Prophet, the faithful husband.

1. The Prophet, the Funny Husband

Many may imagine that the Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) was decisive all the time, even with his wives. They may further sympathize with his wives for this reason. On the contrary, the Prophet was the kindest one towards his wives. He was comical when it was time for fun. He was also smiling and used to cuddle them. 'Aisha, the Mother of the Believers (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "By Allah, l. saw the Prophet (pbuh) standing at the door of my room screening me with his garment to enable me to watch the Abyssinians playing with speares in the mosque. I was placing my head between his ear and shoulder, and my face leaning to his cheek. Then he started to say, "O 'Aisha, were not you satisfied?" I replied, "No" to know how dear I am to him. He said that repeatedly until l became
satisfied." (Reported by Bukhari)

In another version, "He was standing especially for me until I became bored and left. Therefore, you should treat the girl who is fond of amusement (providing that it is permissible)4 according to her age." The Prophet (pbuh) assigned same time for amusement with his wives. This was to make them enjoy their life and so as not to feel that the marital life they lead is boring and troublesome. ’Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) said, "Once I traveled with Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) when I was young and not fat. Then, he asked his companions to go foreward and they did so. Afterwards he said, "Let us race each other." Theretore, I started to run until I won. Later on when I became fat and forgot what had happened, I traveled again with him. He asked his companions to go foreward and they did so. Then he said, "Let us race each other." I forgot what. happened in the first race. I was fat therefore I said, "O messenger of Allah, how could I race you in this case?" However, hesaid, "Let us race." Then, he won the race. He started to laugh and said, "This was opposite the last
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would say to 'Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): "I know when you become angry or pleased of me" She said, "I asked, how could you know that?" He said, "When you are pleased, you say, "No, by the Lord of Muhammad" and when you are angry, you say, "No, by the lord of Ibrahim" (Reported by Bukhari)

One of the scholars said, "Kind treatment with one's wire does not mean not harming her. But it rather means to endure her harm and to be tolerant when she becomes angry, folIowing the Prophet's example the Prophet's wives would argue with him. Moreover, they might abandon him until the night. Once, 'Umar's wite (may Allah be pleased with him) argued with him.' Thereby he said, do you argue with me!? Then, she said, the Prophet's wives (pbuh) would argue with him and he is better than you.
This was the Prophet's style with his wives thus, we should, tollowing the Prophet, be playfull with our wives to relieve them of the hardships of lire and to enrich the love relationship towards them.

2. The Prophet, the Straight Husband

Although he (pbuh) treated his wives kindly, was funny with them and was patient towards their mistakes, he was also straight and decisive when the situation required it. Both tolerance and decisiveness are required in their due time and situation. Allah the Almighty addressed Muhammad (pbuh) by saying:

(O Prophet! Say to thy consorts: if it be that ye desire the life of this world, and its glitter then come! I will provide for your enjoyment and set you free in a handsome manner. But if ye seek Allah and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, verily Allah has prepared for the well-doers amongst you a great reward.) (Al-Ahzab: 28-29)

The aforementioned verse was revealed when the Mothers of the Believers asked the Prophet (pbuh) for some ease and adornment. Accordingly, the Prophet (pbuh) got angry and swore that he would not approach them for a month. He therefore abandoned them all as a lesson for them. After that, Allah the Almighty revealed the aforementioned verses where they were told that they had no place in the sacred household if they merely wished for ease or worldly glitter. If such were the case, they could be divorced and amply provided for. The Mothers of the Believer's however preferred Allah, His Messenger and the Last Day to the worldly glitter. They lived with the Prophet (pbuh) to carry out their great roles in the best way providing him with peacefulness happiness and cooperating with him in disseminating Islam all over the world.

Let us read the details of one such story: Imam Muslim reported on the authority of Jabir ibn 'Abdullah who said, "Once, Abu Bakr asked for the Prophet's permission to enter his home. He found same people sitting by the Prophet's door whom he (pbuh) did not permit to enter. Then, Abu Bakr asked for permission and the Prophet (pbuh) permitted him to enter. Then came 'Umar who also entered after asking permission. There, he found the Prophet (pbuh) keeping silent and his wives sitting around him. Then Abu Bakr intended to say something in order to make the Prophet (pbuh) laugh. He said, "O Messenger of Allah, I would like you see the daughter of Khadija (when she asked me financial support then I twisted her neck. Then, the Prophet (Pbuh) laughed and said, They are around me, as you see, asking me financial support. Thereupon, Abu Bakr held 'Aisha and started to twist her neck, so did 'Umar with Hafsa. They ('Umar and Abu Bakr) said, "Do you" ask the Prophet something he does not.possess? They then said, by Allah we will never ask him anything he does not have."

The Prophet abandoned them for a month. Then, the above verse was revealed upon him. Therefore, he started to speak with them. He spoke first to 'Aisha by saying:
"O 'Aisha, I would like to offer you something but it is better to consult your parent and not to be rash. She asked, "What is this, Messenger of Allah (pbuh)?" He then recited the verse. She said, "Would I consult my parents concerning you? I would rather choose Allah, His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter." She added, I would like you inform none of your wives with what you said." He said if any one of them asked me I would tell her. Allah did not send me to be harsh but a teacher.”

The Prophet made them choose and they choose what was good for them: they chose Allah, His Messenger and the Home of the last Day. It was also narrated that the Prophet's offer to his wives, i.e., to be divorced or to stay with him was after the Prophet had abandoned them for a month. Such separation was due to what Hafsa did: she disclosed the Prophet's secret to 'Aisha. Afterwards, he was pleased with them.

3. The Prophet, the Faithful Husband

In general faithfulness is an Islamic virtue. Allah the Almighty described His Holy Entity by
faithfulness in many Qur'anic verses:(Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods, for theirs (in return) is the Garden (of paradise): They fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: A promise binding on Him in Truth, Through the Torah, the Gospel, and the Qur'an: And who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.) (At-Tawbah: 111)

Allah also described the believers with such a trait saying:(Those who fulfil the covenant of Allah and fait not in their plighted word.) (Ar-Ra'd: 22)

Allah, Exalted be He, also commanded His servants to take faithfulness as a shield, a fort and an adornment to their souls and manners by saying: (Fulfil the covenant of Allah when ye have entered into it.) (An-Nahl: 91)

The Prophet (pbuh) set a great example to us in faithfulness and loyalty by being loyal to his wife, Khadija during her life and after her death. When Khadija died, the Prophet (pbuh) kept her memory all his life. 'Aisha, the Mother of the Believers narrated, "Once an old woman visited the Prophet (pbuh) He asked her, "Who are you'?" she replied, Juthama al-Mazniyya." "Thus, you are Hassanah! How are you!? And how do you do after us? The Prophet said. The woman said, "Well, I sacrifice you with my father and mother. When she left, 'Aisha asked him about the woman to know the reason for his hospitality towards that old woman? Then, the Prophet told her that she often used to visit us during the life of Khadija. He added, "Loyalty is of belief" 'Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) also said, "I was never jealous of any of the Prophet's wives (pbuh) except Khadija I never saw her, but the Prophet (pbuh) kept remembering her.

"Sometimes he used to slaughter a lamb, cut it up into pieces, and distribute them as donations memory of Khadijh. Once I said, it seems to me that there is never existed any woman in this world except Khadija. Then, the Prophet (pbuh) would say: she was so and so and she had given me offspring."


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The Prophet as a Father/Grandfather In the pre-Islamic period, the pagan Arabs hated to have daughters. They used to bury female children alive. There were only two evil choices to decide on: either to keep a girl as a thing of sufferance and contempt, bringing disgrace on the family or to get rid of her by burying her alive. They believed that sons were only the source of strength and prosperity, but daughters only made them subject to humiliating raids. A striking example of such belief was represented by 'Abdul- Muttalib when he swore that if, he had got ten boys, he would have slain one of them as a sacrifice to Allah.

Meanwhile, the Prophet (pbuh) had four daughters and two sons. The two sons soon died young. The athiests of Quraish rented their personal spite and venom against the noble Prophet (pbuh) by taunting him with the loss of his two infant sons by Khadija. Furthermore, someone said, leave him alone, he would die without leaving a successor.
Accordingly Allah the Almighty revealed the surah of at-Takathur to give a warning against boast and rivalry concerning acquisitiveness of whatever kind, of wealth or offspring. Allah also revealed the surah of al-Kawthar to rebuke the disbeliveers who taunted the Prophet with the loss of his sons. Allah the Almighty says:

(The mutual rivalry for piling up (the good things of this world) diverts you (from the more serious things), until ye visit the graves. But nay, ye soon shall know (the reality).) (At- Tabkathur: 1-3)

The Prophet As A Kind Father

Parents are created loving their children. They give them great concern, affection and care. Without such an innate love, the parents might not keep patient to rear their children. Those who do not love their children are surly odd people. Children need love and care to be brought up in a wholesome manner. The Prophet (pbuh) set a great example in rearing his children. He treated them kindly and affectionately. 'Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said,
”Once, a. nomad came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, "You kiss your children but we do not. The Prophet (pbuh) said, "What should I do with you if Allah stripped mercy from your heart!?" (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) also related, "Once the Prophet (pbuh) kissed al-Hassan Ibn Ali before al-Aqra Ibn Habis at-Tamimi. Al-Aqra wondered, "I have ten children but I have never kissed any one of them." Then the Prophet (pbuh) looked at him and said, "Whoever does not have mercy on people, Allah does not have mercy on him." (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Whenever Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her) enters the Prophet' s room, he used to welcome her tenderly and kiss her. Such a love is not consecrated for his daughters only but also for his grandsons and the whole Muslim children. Al-Bukhari reported that Usama Ibn Zayd Ibn Hantha related that the Prophet (pbuh) would hold me and let me sit on one of his knees and al-Hassan on the other. Then he hugged us and said, "O Allah may You have mercy on them both because I have mercy on them." (Reported by AIl-Bukhari)

Barida (may Allah be pleased with him) , related, "One day, the Prophet (pbuh) was delivering a speech when al-Hassan and al-Hussain came joggling and falling in their red shirts until the Prophet (pbuh) get off and carried them up. Then he said Allah the Ever Truthful said: (Your riches and your children may be but a trial.) (At-Taghabun: 15)
When I noticed these two boys walking and falling I could not keep patient until I interrupted my speech and carried them up." (Reported by at-Tirmidhi)

Al-Bukhari also reported on the authority of Abu Qutalah that he said, "Once the Prophet went out carrying Umamah bint Abu al-As on his noble shoulder. Then he started to pray while she was still on his shoulder. When kneeling, he placed her and when raising he hoisted her.” (Reported by al-Bukhari)

The Prophet (pbuh) would also protrude his tongue to Al-Hassan Ibn Ali who in turn would notice the redness of the Prophet (pbuh) tongue and then hurry to him. When visiting his companions of the Helpers, he would be surrounded by children then he would supplicate Allah for them, wipe their heads and greet them. All of these acts express the prophet's kind treatment and love towards children. Eventually, let us conclude this aspect of the prophet's life by the following astonishing account.

In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is reported on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that, "The Prophet (pbuh) entered upon his son, Ibrahim, while he was dying. Thereupon, the eyes of the Prophet (pbuh) started to shed tears. 'Abdur-Rahman ibn 'Awf said to him, "You too, Messenger of Allah!" The Prophet (pbuh) commented, "O ibn 'Awf, it is a mercy and repeated it twice and said, "The eyes shed tears, the heart is grieved, but we do not say anything, except what pleases Allah and for your death we are very sad, O Ibrahim." (Reported by Al-Bukhari) 

When having a newbom child, the Prophet set a good example by slaughtering an animal to celebrate his birth. Likewise, he was also an example of patient father when his som died.

The Prophet As A Serious Father

In addition to being kind and affectionate towards his children, he was also a serious one when noticing any mistake or a danger engulfing them. For example, when the Prophet (pbuh) noticed his daughter. Fatima wearing a necklace of gold he got angry and did not greet her as usual. He advised her by saying, "Would you like to be said that the daughter of Allah's Messenger wore a necklace of gold.

Then the Prophet (pbuh) left her and went out. Accordingly, Fatima sent it to the market to be sold and then bought a slave and freed him. When the Prophet knew that he said, "Praise be to Allah who saved Fatima from the fire."
(Reported by an-Nasa'i)

In the hadith concerning the Mukhzumi woman who committed a theft, the Prophet had a serious and severe attitude. No intermediary, however noble even if the issue concerns the nearest people to him, can intercede to abolish or relieve a punishment ordained by Allah. The Prophet (pbuh) rebuked the intercessor, Usama Ibn Zayd, his beloved companion by saying, "Do you intercede to vitiate a punishment leglized by Allah. Then he started to deliver a
speech. He said, "O people, those who lived before you would only punish the weak when committing a theft and leave the noble. By Allah, had Fatima bint Muhammad committed a theft, I would have cut off her hand."(Reported by al-Bukhari)


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The Prophet's Attributes and MannersThe Prophet peace be upon him combined both perfection of creation and perfection of manners.

Men's dignity, devotion and estimation of the Messenger of Allâh peace be upon him were unique and matchless. No other man in the whole world has been so honoured and beloved. Those who knew him well, were fascinated and enchanted by him. They were ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of saving a nail of his, from hurt or injury.


Describing the Messenger of Allâh peace be upon him who passed by her tent on his journey of migration, Umm Ma'bad Al-Khuza'iyah may Allah be pleased with her said to her husband :

"He was innocently bright and had broad countenance. His manners were fine. Neither was his belly bulging out nor was his head deprived of hair. He had black attractive eyes finely arched by continuous eyebrows. His hair glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was extremely commanding. His head was large, well formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime.

The stranger was fascinated from the distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him, than this fascination was changed into attachment and respect.

His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were rosary of beads.

His stature was neither too high nor too small to look repulsive. He was a twig amongst the two, singularly bright and fresh.

He was always surrounded by his Companions. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued a commandment, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander.

His utterances were marked by Truth and sincerity, free from all kinds of falsehoods and lies."

'Ali bin Abi Talib radiallaahu 'anhu describing him peace be upon him said :

"The Messenger of Allâh peace be upon him was neither excessively tall nor extremely short. He was medium height among his friends. His hair was neither curly nor wavy. It was in between. His face was not swollen or meaty-compact. It was fairly round. His mouth was white. He had black and large eyes with long haired eyelids. His joints (limbs) and shoulder joints were rather big. He had rod-like little hair extending from his chest down to his navel, but the rest of his body was almost hairless. He had thick hand palms and thick fingers and toes.

At walking, he lifted his feet off the ground as if he had been walking in a muddy remainder of water.

When he turned, he turned all. The Prophethood Seal was between his shoulders. He is the Seal of Prophets, the most generous and the bravest of all."

Abu Huraira radiallaahu 'anhu said :

"I have never seen a thing nicer than the Messenger of Allâh peace be upon him. It seems as if the sunlight were moving within his face. I have never seen one who is faster in pace than the Messenger of Allâh peace be upon him. It seems as if the earth had folded up to shorten the distance for him. For we use to wear ourselves out while he was at full ease."

Whenever Abu Bakr May Allah be pleased with him saw him he would say :

"He is faithful, chosen (by Allâh), and calls for forgiveness. He shines like a full moon light when it is far from dark (clouds)."

Umar may Allah be pleased with him said :

"When he got angry his face would go so red that you think it were an inflected red skin-spot with pomegranate grains on both cheeks."

Ibn al-'Abbas May Allah be pleased with him said :

"His two front teeth were split, so whenever he speaks, light goes through them. His neck was as pure and silvery as a neck of doll. His eyelids were long haired, but his beard was thick. His nose was high-tipped, middle- cambered with narrow nostrils. His legs were plain, straight and stretching down. His other limbs were straight too. The two hollows of his soles hardly touch the ground. When he walks away he vanishes soon; but he walks at ease. The way he walks seems similar to one who is leaning forwards and is about to fall down."

Anas may Allah be pleased with him said:

"I have never touched silk, or a silky garment softer than the palm of the Prophet peace be upon him; nor have I smelt a perfume or any scent nicer than his. His sweat was pearl-like."

The heart of every Muslim is filled with the love of the Last Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and this love of the Messenger of Allâh isan asset him. Love and respect of a person depends on the benefits, we get from him. As the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam is the greatest benefactor of humanity, every Muslim has deepest love for him. Every deed of his life is to be followed by every individual of Muslim Ummah. Highest love for the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam is made a test of our faith.

Allâh (Subhannah wa Ta'aala) has described and explained the status of Muhammad peace be upon him in the Qur'ân:

"Say [O Muhammad sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam to mankind]: If you (really) love Allâh then follow me ( i.e accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur'ân and the Sunnah), Allâh will love you...."(Al Quran 3:31)

From the hadeeth of the Prophet peace be upon him, he said :

"None of you has faith unless I am dearer to him than his father, his son and all mankind."

His speech was the most reliable. He was the keenest and the most attentive to people's trust and was very careful to pay people's due in full.

The Prophet peace be upon him was the most tractable and the most yielding companion, seeing him unexpectedly, you fear him and venerate him. He who has acquaintance with him will like him. He who describes him says:

"I have never seen such a person before, nor after seeing him."

From "The Sealed Nectar" by Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmân al-Mubarakpoori


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Some Humorous Talk of the ProphetAbu Huraira radiallaahu 'anhu said: That the companions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said to him, 'O Messenger of Allaah! Do you utter the words that excite comically?' The Prophet said, 'I speak nothing but that which is true' (i.e. That is while in a jovial mood I never tell a lie) [Tirmidhi Chapter of Shamail p 17]

Anas ibn Malik radiallaahu 'anhu said: A man came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and asked him to give him a camel to ride on. The Prophet said, 'I will seat thee on the young one of a camel.' The man said, 'Of what use for me will a young one of a camel be?' The Prophet replied, 'These camels are but the young ones of the she camels.'[Abu Nauim, Ibn Asakir in al Munyakhab Vol V p142]

Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) said: That she accompanied the Prophet on a certain journey. At that time she was a mere girl and was neither fat nor bulky. The Prophet asked the people to move on, and they marched ahead. Then the Prophet said to me, 'Come on, let us have a race'. Aisha says that she ran and remained much ahead of him. The Prophet kept quiet for some time. Later on when Aisha grew fat and loose bodied, she forgot the previous incident. Again she accompanied the Prophet on some journey. The Prophet again asked the people to march ahead, and they moved ahead. Then the Prophet again asked her to have a race with him. This time the prophet defeated her and she lagged behind. Now the prophet laughed and said, 'This is in reply to our previous defeat' [Ahmad, Safwat al Safwah Vol I p68]

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: That someone asked him if the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam made jovial remarks. Ibn Abbas replied in the affirmative. Then the man asked him to tell him what type of jovial remarks he indulged in. At this Ibn Abbas said, 'Once the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam gave a very loose shirt to one of his wives and asked her to wear it and to praise Allaah. He further asked her to walk around pulling its ends or skirts as a bride does.' [Ibn Asakir and al Kanz Vol IV p43]

Anas radiallaahu 'anhu said: That the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said to him, 'O man! Having two ears.' [Al Bidayah Vol VI p46]

Numan ibn Bashir radiallaahu 'anhu said: That Abu Bakr sought permission to enter the Prophet's apartment. In the mean time he heard Aisha speaking in a louder voice that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. When Abu Bakr entered the apartment, he caught Aisha and said, 'Beware! Now on I should never see you speaking thus'. He wanted to slap her. The Prophet held Abu Bakr by the waist and thus saved Aisha. Abu Bakr went out angrily. When Abu Bakr had gone, the Prophet said to Aisha, 'Well, how did I save you from the man'. After a few days absence Abu Bakr again sought permission, and saw that both the Prophet and Aisha were at peace. Then he said, 'Let me enter in your peace as I had entered in your dispute'. The Prophet said, 'We do so, we do so.' [Al Bidayah Vol VI p46]

Hasan radiallaahu 'anhu said: That a certain old woman came to the Prophet and requested him to pray to Allaah to make her enter paradise. The Prophet said, 'O mother of so and so! No old woman shall enter into paradise'. The narrator says that on hearing this the old woman went back weeping. The Prophet said to the people around him to go and tell the old woman that she would not enter into paradise as an old woman. (Tirmidhi) Then he recited the verse:

"Verily we! We have created those (maidens) by a creation and have made them virgins, loving, of equal age"Qur'aan 56: 35-37

From Hayatus Sahabah (The Lives of the Companions)Source

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The Miracles of the Prophet MuhammadThe Messenger of Allâh possesses many manifest miracles and signs demonstrating [his veracity], reaching thousands and they are well known.

From amongst them was the Qur'ân, the manifest and clear miracle and brilliant proof, falsehood cannot approach it from before it or behind it. It is a revelation from One Who is All-Wise and Praiseworthy. It incapacitated the most eloquent of people in the most eloquent of times to produce a single chapter than would be comparable to it, even if the whole of creation were to gather for that purpose. Allâh, the Exalted says,

"Say: if the whole of mankind and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Qur'ân, they could not produce the like of it, even if they assisted each other." [Al-Isrâ' (17):88]

It challenged them to this despite their large numbers, their eloquence and their severe enmity, and it challenges them to this day.

As for the other miracles, it is not possible to enumerate them all due to their huge number and renewing and increasing nature. I will mention some examples:

The splitting of the moon, water flowing from between his fingers, increasing the quantity of food and water, the glorification of the food, the palm tree yearning for him, stones greeting him, the talking of the poisoned leg [of roasted sheep], trees walking towards him, two trees that were far apart coming together and then parting again, the barren [and therefore dry] sheep giving milk, his returning the eye of Qatâdah bin an-Nu'mân to its place with his hand after it had slipped out, his splitting lightly into the eye of 'Alî when it had become inflamed and its being cured almost immediately, his wiping the leg of 'Abdullâh bin 'Atîq whereupon he was immediately cured.

His informing of the places of death of the polytheists on the Day of Badr saying, 'this is the place of such-and-such a person.' His informing of his killing Ubayy ibn Khalaf, that a group of his nation would traverse an ocean and Umm Harâm would be amongst them and this occurred. That all was drawn together for him of the ends of the earth and displayed to him would be opened for his nation, that the treasures of Chosroes would be spend by his nation in the Way of Allâh, the Mighty and Magnificent. That he feared for his nation that they would be tempted by the wealth and allurement of this world and that the treasures of the Persians and Romans would be ours and that Surâqah bin Mâlik would wear the trousers of Chosroes.

He informed us that Hasan bin 'Alî would reconcile between two large warring parties of Muslims, that Sa'd bin Abû Waqqâs would live such that nations would benefit by him and others would be harmed. That an-Najâshî had died on this particular day while he was in Ethiopia and that al-Aswad al-Ansî had been killed on this particular day while he was in Yemen.

That the Muslims would fight the Turks who were described as having small eyes, wide faces and small, chiselled noses and that Yemen, Syria and Irâq would be conquered by the Muslims.

He informed us that the Muslims would comprise three armies, an army in Syria, an army in Yemen and an army in Irâq. That they would conquer Egypt, a land whose [unit of land measurement] was the Qîrât, they they should deal with their people well for they have protection [being Copts] and ties of kinship [through Hajar]. That Awais al-Qarnî would come to you from the auxiliaries of Yemen, he would be affected with leprosy and it would be healed except for the space of a dirham, and he indeed arrived during the rule of 'Umar.

He informed us that a group of his nation would always be upon the truth and that mankind would become many in number and that the Ansâr would diminish in number and that the Ansâr would not be given their due [with regards distribution of wealth and leadership]. That mankind would keep on asking questions until they would say, "Allâh created the creation ..."[Referring to the hadîth, "the people will continue asking until they say, 'this is Allâh who created everything ... but who created Allâh?' " Reported by al-Bukhârî [no.7296] and Muslim [no.136]]

He informed us that Ruwayfî' bin Thâbit would live a long life, that 'Ammâr bin Yâsir would be killed by the transgressing group, that this nation shall divide into sects and that they would fight each other.

He informed us that a fire would emanate from the land of Hijâz and the likes of this. All of this occurred exactly as he, sallallâhu 'alayhi wa sallam, said it would.

He said to Thâbit bin Qays,"You will live being praised ... and you will die as a martyr." and he lived being praised and was martyred at al-Yamâmah.

He said about 'Uthmân, "He would afflicted by a severe trial." [The meaning of severe trial is his being imprisoned in his house and his being killed by transgressors.]

He said about a person amongst the Muslims who had just fought a severe fight that,"He would be from amongst the denizens of the Fire." and later he committed suicide.

Wâbisah bin Ma'bad came to him in order to ask him about righteousness and sin upon which he asked,"Have you come to ask about righteousness and sin?"

He said to 'Alî, az-Zubair and al-Miqdâd, "Go to the garden of Khâkh for indeed there is Dha'înah* who has a book with her." They found her there but she initially denied having the book and then took it our from within her braids.

He said to Abû Hurayrah, when Satan had stolen some dates, "indeed he shall return ... " and he did.

He said to his wives, "The most prolific of you in giving charity will be the quickest of you to join me," and it was so. [Zaynab bint Jahsh radiallâhu 'anhâ was the most prolific of them in giving charity and was the first to die. Refer to Muslim [no.2452].]

He said to 'Abdullâh bin Sallâm, "You will remain upon Islâm until you die."

He supplicated for Anas that his wealth and sons increase and that he should live a long life and it was so. He lived for more than one hundred years and not one of the Ansâr was richer than he and one hundred and twenty of his children had been buried before the arrival of al-Hajjâj [to Basrah]. This is detailed further in Sahîh al-Bukhârî [no.1982] and others.

He sallallâhu 'alayhi wa sallam supplicated that Islâm be strengthened through 'Umar bin al-Khattab or Abû Jahl, and Allâh strengthened it through 'Umar radiallâhu 'anhu. He supplicated against Surâqah bin Mâlik and the feet of his horse sank into the earth and he was thrown off, he called out asking for safe conduct and was granted it, then he asked the Prophet to make a supplication for him.

He supplicated that Allâh remove feeling the bitter cold and heat from 'Alî and so never did he feel cold or hot. He supplicated for Hudhayfah, the night that he sent him to spy on the Confederates, that he not feel the cold and he did not until he had returned. He supplicated for ibn 'Abbâs that Allâh grant him understanding of the religion and it was so. He supplicated against 'Utaybah bin Abû Lahab that Allâh cause a dog from amongst His dogs to overcome him and he was killed by a lion at az-Zarqâ'.

He sallallâhu 'alayhi wa sallam supplicated for the descent of rain when they asked him to at the time of drought, there was not a single cloud in the sky, then when he had supplicated, the clouds gathered like mountains and it rained until the next Friday. It rained so much they they had to come back and ask him to supplicated and stop the rain, so he supplicated and the rain stopped and they out into the glaring sun.

He supplicated for Abû Talhah and his wife, Umm Sulaym, that he bless them in the night they had spent together and she became pregnant and gave birth to 'Adullâh. He had nine children and all of them were scholars.

He sallallâhu 'alayhi wa sallam supplicated for the mother of Abû Hurayrah radiallâhu 'anhu that she be guided and Abû Hurayrah left to find her performing the ritual bath because she had accepted Islâm. He supplicated for Umm Qays bint Muhsin, the sister of 'Ukkasha, that she live a long life and we do not know of another woman who lived as long as she did. This was reported by an-Nasâ'î in the chapter concerning washing the deceased.

On the Day of Hunain he threw a handful of dirt at the disbelievers and said, "May the faces be disfigured," and Allâh, the Exalted, vanquished them, filling their eyes with dirt. He once went out to one hundred of the Quraysh who were waiting to do something horrible to him and he put dirt on their head and went on his way without their seeing him.

* [This is the woman with whom Hasîb al-Balta'ah radiallâhu 'anhu sent a letter to the people of Mecca in order to inform them of the plans of the Messenger of Allâh sallallâhu 'alayhi wa sallam to fight them. It was concerning this that the first verses of Sûrah Mumtahinah were revealed. The garden of Khâkh is a place falling between Mecca and Madînah. Refer to Bukhârî [no.3983] and Muslim [no.2494] and Tafsîr ibn Kathîr [4/344].]

By Imâm an-Nawawî rahimahullâh From 'Life of the Messenger'


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The Manners of the Prophet in Fighting EnemiesThe world did not know a president or conqueror more merciful than Prophet Muhammad – peace be upon him – in dealing with his enemies and captives. This big headline may look too exaggerated, but mentioning some evidences and examples will sure prove the truth. In this part, we will deal with the manners of the Prophet – peace be upon him – before, during and after fighting in order to extract the best moral lessons, the human principles and the cultural values.

First: his Manners Before Fighting

The Prophet – peace be upon him – was not hostile or aggressive in dealing with his opponents. He was distinguishing between the covenanters, the warriors and non-Muslims under the ruling of Islam. He did not violate the treaties or act treacherously toward his enemies; contrary, he was dealing with each of them according to the peace & war relations. Ibn Al-Qayyem has summarized the fighting manners of the Prophet – peace be upon him – in his book "Zad Al-Ma'ad" by saying: (After Allah The Almighty has ordered Muslims to fight the disbelievers, the Prophet has classified the disbelievers into three categories; covenanters, warmongers and Non-Muslims under the Islamic Rule.

He instructed to honor the treaties which were entered with the covenanters as long as they are honoring their promises but if he fears that they will violate the treaties, he will terminate the treaties and will not fight them except after notifying them duly about the termination of the treaty. Allah the Almighty has ordered the Prophet – peace be upon him – to fight any party who violates the treaties and promises. After the revelation of the verses of "Bara'a" which demonstrated the methods of dealing with such categories, the Prophet – peace be upon him – was ordered to fight the enemies from the Jews & Christians until they pay tributes or embrace Islam and was ordered also to fight the disbelievers; therefore, the Prophet – peace be upon him – has fought the disbelievers by sword and fought the hypocrite by proof and evidence.

These are the rules which were organizing his relations with his opponents; the peace loving or warmongers. Peace was exchanged under certain conditions and war was preceded with objective premises aiming at attaining peace such as the propagation for embracing Islam by own will or paying the tribute to the Islamic State; otherwise, if they insisted on war, continued their stubbornness and fought the Islamic propagation they will find what they want.

Second: his Manners During the Fight

Although fighting is a process wherein the people are killed or injured, the Prophet – peace be upon him – has legislated to his people supreme morals and principles governing the manners of the Muslim fighter and imposing severe punishments on the violators in the current life and the hereafter. Accordingly, the holy fighting should not be used except under the permissible means and the fair methods. Safwan Bin Assal – May Allah be pleased with him – said: (The Prophet – peace be upon him has sent me with a brigade and said: Start Fight in the name of Allah The Almighty and don't exceed the proper bounds and don't be treacherous…)) (1)?

Yahia Bin Saeed said: Abu Bakr – May Allah be pleased with him – has sent the armies to Al-Sham and told Yazid Bin Abi Sufian the following: (I have ten commandments to you: Don't destroy inhabited places, don't kill sheep or camels except for eating, don't sink palms or burn it, don't exaggerate, don't be coward, don't kill children, women, or old people, don't cut fruitful trees) (2). In another narration he said: (You will pass by people who dedicated their time for hermitages, don't bother them). These texts and the other Islamic military rules established by the Prophet comprised the moral principles of war, such as:

1. Dedication and neutrality concerning the actual objectives of the war and leave any thing related to the hatred, treachery, revenge or retaliation.

2- Keep the environment and avoid spoiling the land such as burning trees and killing the animals except when necessary.

3- Not confronting the non-warriors such as the women, children and the old people.

4- Religious forgiveness, respecting the sacred places of the others, not killing the priests or ministers unless they fight Muslims or support fighting the Muslims and avoid their churches and worship places.

Those who accuse the Prophet – peace be upon him – and his followers of being bloodthirsty or barbaric are ignorant about these manners and morals and do not care about it in their wars (There are several laws which tell people the most faithful, dutiful and kind teachings & instructions but when the matter came to the actual manners they forget such teachings & instructions and turn into the hatred, severity and mocking the rights of people, blood shedding and making the wars. One of the best examples on this fact is the clear-cut contradiction between the French Wealth Principles and the actions of the French people in the countries which are under their control such as the Arabic North African Countries which suffered and still suffering from all kinds of injustice, persecution and humiliation. The same is also applicable on the large countries which declared the legislation of human rights while they were the first who ignored human rights and breached the dignity and liberty of the people on their land and wealth) (1)

Not only this, the large countries have ignited wars and committed genocides against their opponents under the pretext of fighting terrorism, liberating people, achieve democracy and the other alleged principles while they do not have mercy on the children, old people or woman. Just see the prisons of Gwantanamo or Abu Ghraib and the other horrible examples of their manners and morals.

Third: his Manners After Fighting

When the battle has come to an end and the victorious party appears, if the Muslims were the victorious party and the enemy fell under the control of the Muslim and their states defeated by armies of Islam the Prophet – peace be upon him – applied the just & fair rules of Islam on the captives by considering the welfare of the Muslims, the dignity of man and the security aspect of the captives toward Muslims.

The jurists of the Prophet's life have demonstrated the manners of the Prophet – peace be upon him – and the rules of Islam after the fight. They said: (As for the defeated party, we respect their believes, lives, money and temples and they will be under the protection of the state and shall have the rights of the citizens. They will not be obliged to do any thing except keeping loyalty toward the country and pay a simple amount called the tributes which were imposed on the defeated nations by the victorious nations before and after Islam. Several countries in our era are imposing tributes on their citizens as a personal tax on people …) (1).

Ibn Al-Qayyem Al-Jawziah has summarized the manners of the Prophet – peace be upon him – toward the captives by saying: (He was freeing some captives, kill others, take ransom for some of them, exchange them with the Muslim captives and all of this according to the Muslims' welfare. The Prophet – peace be upon him – has taken ransom for the captives of Bader Battle and said: If Al-Mute'm Bin Adai was alive and negotiated with me about those captives I will sure leave them to him. On the Treaty of Hudaibiah, more than eighty armed people attacked the Prophet – peace be upon him – suddenly, but the Prophet – peace by upon him – defeated them and took them as captives and then released them. He has captured Thumama Bin Athal, the Head of Bani Hanifa tribe, then released him. Seeing the mercy & forgiveness of the Prophet – peace be upon him, Thumama has embraced Islam.

The treatment and the dealings of the Prophet – peace be upon him – during his battles were conforming to the statements of the scholars and here are some of his wise stands toward the captives:

- Captives of Bader Battle: they were seventy captives. The Prophet – peace be upon him – consulted Abu Baker and Omar – May Allah be pleased with them – about the captives, but each of them has different opinion. Abu Baker's opinion was to take ransom due to their kinship so that they may embrace Islam while Omar's opinion was to kill them because of their previous torture & persecution to the Muslims. The Prophet – peace be upon him – adopted the opinion of Abu Baker. Then Allah The Almighty has revealed this verse supporting the opinion of Omar: {It is not fitting for an apostle that he should have prisoners of war until he hath thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but Allah looketh to the Hereafter: And Allah is Exalted in might, Wise} (Anfal: 67).

The ransom started from four hundred Dirham and reached four thousand Dirham. (1). The Prophet – peace be upon him – has took the ransom from Al-Mutaleb Bin Hantab, Saifi Bin Abi Rifaa and Abu Iza Al-Jamahi in addition to Abi Al-As provided that the later should release Zainab and let her immigrate to the Medina.

- The Captives of Bani Al-Mustalek Battle: The Muslims in this battle has captured women and children, among them was Juwairiah Bint Al Hareth, the Head of Bani Al-Mustalek. She was the share of Thabit Bin Qais Bin Shamas who entered an agreement with her against a certain sum of money. The Prophet – peace be upon him – has paid for her and married her. Seeing that, the Muslims said: the relatives of the Prophet's wife are arrested by us?? Then they released the captives of Bani Al Mustalek who have all entered Islam (3).

- His Ruling on Bani Quraidha: Bani Quraida was in alliance with the parties who formed a union in order to invade the Prophet – peace be upon him – although they were in treaty with the Prophet – peace be upon him. After the battle of Al-Ahzab directly, the Prophet – peace be upon him – invaded and blockaded them for twenty five days. When the blockade became very severe and they felt the pain of the plight, they were told to submit to the ruling of the Prophet – peace be upon him. They have then consulted Abu Lubaba Bin Abdul Munther but he told them it is only the death; hearing that, they said we will submit to the ruling of Sa'ad Bin Mu'ath. The Prophet – peace be upon him – agreed, and Sa'ad was called and brought on a donkey. When he reached, they began asking him for sympathy and to alleviate their punishment. Sa'ad has applied on them the judgment of Allah The Almighty which is: The men to be killed, the women and children to be taken as captives and the money to be distributed. This judgment was fair and just because in addition to their betrayal, Bani Quraida have collected one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armors, and five hundred shields to fight Muslims but the Muslims have taken the same after they have conquered their dwelling.

- The Stand of the Prophet in the Day of Makka Conquest: When the Prophet – peace be upon him – conquered Makka, controlled it and commanded the heads of Makka who have tortured him and his companions the Prophet – peace be upon him – gave them the full security and stability on their properties and bloods except certain group of them who have committed crimes against the Muslims such as: Abdul Ozza Bin Khatal, Abdullah Bin Saad Ibn Abi Sarah, Al Hareth Bin Nufail Bin Wahb, Ikrema Bin Abi Jahl, Maqis Bin Sababa, Habar Bin Al-Aswad, two female singers for Ibn Khatal who were satirizing the Prophet – peace be upon him – and Sara's the female slave of certain person of Bani Abdul Mutaleb who was caught having the letter of Hateb. As for Abi Sarah, Othman Bin Affan has brought him to the Prophet – peace be upon him – and pleaded for him; therefore, the prophet forgave him as he has embraced Islam before and immigrated but then converted again to polytheism and went back to Makka. As for Ikrema Bin Abi Jahl, he escaped away to Yemen but his wife requested protection from the Prophet – peace be upon him – and the Prophet gave him the protection; therefore, she followed him and he returned back with her and embraced Islam. As for Bin Khatl, he was clinging to the curtains of the Kabba, then a man came to the Prophet – peace be upon him – and told him about that. The prophet said: "Kill him"; therefore, he killed him. As for Maqis Bin Sababa, he was killed by Numaila Bin Abdullah. Maqais was a Muslim but he killed a man from the people of the Medina, converted to polytheism and supported the polytheists. As for Al-Hareth, he has harmed the Prophet – peace be upon him – very much; therefore, Ali – May Allah be pleased with him – has killed him.

As for Habar Bin Al-Aswad who has harmed Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet – peace be upon him – when she immigrated and made her fell on the rock and caused her abortion, he escaped a way to Hibar at the day of Makka Conquest then embraced Islam. As for the two female signers, one of them was killed and the other was protected. Sara also was protected then she embraced Islam (1). Thereafter, the Prophet – peace be upon him – has gathered the people of Makka and told them: (Non has the right to be worshipped except Allah The Almighty alone, Who has honored His promises, supported his Prophet and defeated the Al-Ahzab (the conspiring polytheists parties). Any exploit, blood or claimed money is under my feet except the custody of the Kaba and supplying water to the pilgrims. The one who is killed by mistake by lash or stick is subject to a blood money of One Hundred camels, forty of which are pregnant. O people of Quraish, Allah The Almighty has liberated you from the zeal and the glorification of your fathers before Islam. All people came from Adam and Adam was created out of soil, then the Prophet – peace be upon him recited this verse {O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you} (Al-Hujurat: 13) then he said: ((O people of Quraish, what do you think I'll do with you?)) the replied: Sure forgiveness, you are the dear brother and nephew. He said: (go! You are free)) (1)

No doubt, if the Prophet – peace be upon him – has killed them he will not be unjust with them because they have tortured him and his companions, killed several of them, took their money, exiled them from their houses, fought them for their religion, supported their enemies and satirized them by their poets!! See his mercy in dealing with his people, his enemies and his opponents.

Submission to Allah and Thanking Him after Victory & Stability

The kings of the earth and the masters of the world, when they achieved victory in their wars, used to take proud in such victories, recite the speeches, say the poems, talk about their achievements via all media means out of their joy and they forgot that the victory is one of the blessings of Allah and that He is alone the One who grants victory. But the Prophet – peace be upon him – has invented unprecedented manner for the conquerors and invaders by submission to Allah The Almighty and thanking Him for the blessing of victory. The Prophet – peace be upon him – has entered Makka lowering his head and submitting to Allah The Almighty after wining the blessings of Allah by conquering Makka and remained lowering his head until he felt that his beard will touch his saddle … (1).

Sheikh Safurahman Al-Mubarakfori said: (The Prophet – Peace be upon him – then entered the house of Umm Hane' Bint Abi Taleb, made a shower and prayed eight Rak'as (prayers) in her house at the time of the morning. People thought that this is the prayer of Dhuha which is not like this but it is the prayer of conquest …)(2).

All of this was to comply with the order of Allah The Almighty mentioned in the Sura of An-Nasr which stated: {When comes the help of Allah and Victory * And thou dost see the people enter Allah's Religion in crowds * Celebrate the praises of thy Lord, and pray for His Forgiveness: For He is Oft-Returning (In Grace and Mercy)}.


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Last Sermon of the Messenger of Allaah
This Sermon was delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I don't know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allaah has forbidden you to take usury (Interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived...

Beware of Satan, for your safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have right over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to commit adultery.

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allaah, say your five daily prayers (Salaah), fast during the month of Ramadaan, and give your wealth in Zakaat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over other except by piety and good action.

Remember, one day you will appear before Allaah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not astray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness oh Allaah that I have conveyed your message to your people." 


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The Death of the ProphetThe Start of the Disease

On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of al-Hijra, he participated in funeral rites in al-Baqee'. On the way back he had a headache, his temperature rose so high that the heat effect could be felt over his headband. He led the Muslims in prayer for eleven days though he was sick. The total number of his sick days were either thirteen of fourteen.

The Last Week

When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: "Where shall I stay tomorrow?" "Where shall I stay?" They understood what he wanted. So they allowed him to stay wherever he wished. He moved to 'Aishah's room leaning - while he was walking - on al-Fadl bin al-'Abbas and 'Alî bin Abî Tâlib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her abode. It was there that he spent the last week of his life.

During that period, 'Aishah used to recite al-Mu'awwidhat (Chapters 113 and 114 of the Qur'ân) and other supplications which he has already taught her.

Five days before death

On Wednesday, five days before he died the Prophet's temperature rose so high signalling the severness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain. "Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them." So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: "That is enough. That is enough."

Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed, sat on the pulpit and made a speech to the people who were gathering together around him. He said: "The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/62; Muatta' Imâm Malik, p.360] Then he said: "Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol." [Muatta' Imâm Malik, p.65]

Then he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying:

"He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself."

Then he descended, and performed the noon prayer. Again he returned to the pulpit and sat on it. He resumed his first speech about enmity and some other things. A man then said: "You owe me three Dirhams." The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Fadl, pay him the money." He went on saying:

"I admonish you to be good to Al-Ansar (the Helpers). They are my family and with them I found shelter. They have acquitted themselves credibly of the responsibility that fell upon them and now there remains what you have to do. You should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that they have shown, and should overlook their faults."

In another version: "The number of believers would increase, but the number of Helpers would decrease to the extent that they would be among men as salt in the food. So he who from among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to the people, he should frilly acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown and overlook their faults."

And said: "Allâh, the Great, has given a slave of His the opportunity to make a choice between whatever he desires of Allâh’s provisions in this world, and what He keeps for him in the world, but he has opted for the latter."

Abû Sa’id Al-Khudri said: "Upon hearing that, Abû Bakr cried and said: ‘We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake.’ We wondered why Abû Bakr said such a thing. People said: ‘Look at that old man! The Messenger of Allâh says about a slave of Allâh who was granted the right between the best fortunes of this world and the bounty of Allâh in the Hereafter, but he says: We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake!’ It was later on that we realized what he had aimed at. The Messenger of Allâh was the slave informed to choose. We also acknowledged that Abû Bakr was the most learned among us." [Mishkat Al-Masabih, 2/546]

Then the Messenger of Allâh said:

"The fellow I feel most secure in his company is Abû Bakr. If I were to make friendship with any other one than Allah, I would have Abû Bakr a bosom friend of mine. For him I feel affection and brotherhood of Islam. No gate shall be kept open in the Mosque except that of Abû Bakr’s." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/22,429,449, 2/638; Misbkat Al-Masabih, 2/548]

Four days before his death

On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh he said to people — though he was suffering from a severe pain:

"Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error." Upon this ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: "The Prophet of Allâh is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’an with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you." Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/637]

That day he recommended three things:

1. Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia.
2. He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do.
3. As for the third — the narrator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Book and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves.

In spite of the strain of disease and suffering from pain, the Prophet used to lead all the prayers till that Thursday — four days before he died. On that day he led the sunset prayer and recited:

"By the winds (or angels or the Messengers of Allah) sent forth one after another." [Al Quran 77:1][Misbkat Al-Masabih, 1/102]

In the evening he grew so sick that he could not overcome the strain of disease or go out to enter the Mosque. ‘Aishah said: The Prophet asked: "Have the people performed the prayer?" "No. They haven’t. They are waiting for you." "Put some water in the washing pot." Said he. We did what he ordered. So he washed and wanted to stand up, but he fainted. When he came round he asked again "Have the people prayed?" Then the sequence of events took place again and again for the second and the third times from the time he washed to the time he fainted after his attempts to stand up. Therefore he sent to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer himself. Abû Bakr then led the prayer during those days [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/99]. They were seventeen prayers in the lifetime of Muhammad sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

Three or four times ‘Aishah talked to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam to exempt Abû Bakr from leadership in prayer lest people should despair of him, but he refused and said: "You (women) are like the women who tried to entice Joseph (Yusuf) into immorality. Convey my request to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer."

A Day or Two prior to Death

On Saturday or on Sunday, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the noon prayer. Abû Bakr, who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: "Seat me next to him." They seated him on the left hand side of Abû Bakr. The Prophet led the prayer, and Abû Bakr followed him and raised his voice at every 'Allâhu Akbar' (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) the Prophet said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî 1/98,99]

A Day before his Death

On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims. So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa’ (a cubic measure) of barley.

The Last Day Alive

In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: "While the Muslims were performing the dawn prayer on Monday — led by Abû Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abû Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet wanted to go out and pray." Anas said: "The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain." [ibid. 21640]

The Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam did not live for the next prayer time.

When it was daytime, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam called Fatimah and told her something in a secret voice that made her cry. Then he whispered to her something else which made her laugh. ‘Aishah enquired from her after the Prophet’s death, as to this weeping and laughing to which Fatimah replied:

"The first time he disclosed to me that he would not recover from his illness and I wept. Then he told me that I would be the first of his family to join him, so I laughed." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/638]

He gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the world [Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen, 1/282]. Fatimah witnessed the great pain that afflicted her father. So she said: "What great pain my father is in!". To these words, the Prophet remarked:

"He will not suffer any more when today is over." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

He asked that Al-Hasan and Al-Husain be brought to him. He kissed them and recommended that they be looked after. He asked to see his wives. They were brought to him. He preached them and told them to remember Allah. Pain grew so much severe that the trace of poison he had at Khaibar came to light. It was so sore that he said to ‘Aishah: "I still feel the painful effect of that food I tasted at Khaibar. I feel as if death is approaching." [ibid, 2/637] He ordered the people to perform the prayers and be attentive to slaves. He repeated it several times. [ibid. 2/637]

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam breathes his last

When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allah’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman - the son of Abû Bakr - came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him - for I knew that he wanted it — "Would you like me to take it for you?" He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him "Shall I soften it for you?" He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).

In another version it is said: "So he brushed (Istanna) his teeth as nice as he could." There was a water container (Rakwa) available at his hand with some water in. He put his hand in it and wiped his face with it and said:

"There is no god but Allah. Death is full of agonies." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640]

As soon as he had finished his Siwak, brushing, he raised his hand or finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say: "With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high." [ibid, 2/638-641] Then at intervals he uttered these words: "The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode." This event took place at high morning time on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.

The Companions’ concern over the Prophet’s Death

The great (loss) news was soon known by everybody in Madinah. Dark grief spread on all areas and hoirizons of Madinah. Anas said: "I have never witnessed a day better or brighter than that day on which the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam came to us; and I have never witnessed a more awful or darker day than that one on which the Messenger of Allâh died on." [Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 2/547]

When he died, Fatimah said: "O Father, whom his Lord responded to his supplication! O Father, whose abode is Paradise. O Father, whom I announce his death to Gabriel." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

  • ‘Umar’s Attitude
‘Umar, who was so stunned that he almost lost consciousness and stood before people addressing them: "Some of the hypocrites claim that the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam died. The Messenger of Allâh did not die, but went to his Lord in the same way as Moses bin ‘Imran did. He stayed away for forty nights, but finally came back though they said he had been dead. By Allah, the Messenger of Allâh will come back and he will cut of the hands and legs of those who claim his death." [Ibn Hisham, 2/655]

  • Abû Bakr’s Attitude
Abû Bakr left his house at As-Sunh and came forth to the Mosque on a mare-back. At the Mosque, he dismounted and entered. He talked to nobody but went on till he entered ‘Aishah’s abode, and went directly to where the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam was. The Prophet was covered with a Yemeni mantle. He uncovered his face and tended down, kissed him and cried. Then he said: "I sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. Allah, verily, will not cause you to die twice. You have just experienced the death that Allâh had ordained."

Then he went out and found ‘Umar talking to people. He said: "‘Umar, be seated." ‘Umar refused to do so. People parted ‘Umar and came towards Abû Bakr, who started a speech saying:

"And now, he who worships Muhammad sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, Muhammad is dead now. But he who worships Allah, He is Ever Living and He never dies. Allâh says: ‘Muhammad is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allâh, and Allâh will give reward to those who are grateful.’ " [Al Quran 3:144]

Ibn ‘Abbas said: "By Allâh it sounded as if people had never heard such a Qur’aanic verse till Abû Bakr recited it as a reminder. So people started reciting it till there was no man who did not recite it."

Ibn Al-Musaiyab said that ‘Umar had said: "By Allâh as soon as I heard Abû Bakr say it, I fell down to the ground. I felt as if my legs had been unable to carry me so I collapsed when I heard him say it. Only then did I realize that Muhammad sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam had really died." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640,641]

Burial and Farewell Preparations to his Honourable Body

Dispute about who would succeed him broke out even before having the Messenger of Allah’s body prepared for burial. Lots of arguments, discussions, dialogues took place between the Helpers and Emigrants in the roofed passage (portico) of Barn Sa’ida. Finally they acknowledged Abû Bakr (RA) as a caliph. They spent the whole Monday there till it was night. People were so busy with their arguments that it was late night — just about dawn of Tuesday — yet his blessed body was still lying on his bed covered with an inked-garment. He was locked in the room.

On Tuesday, his body was washed with his clothes on. He was washed by Al-’Abbas, 'Alî, Al-Fadl and Qathm — the two sons of Al-’Abbas, as well as Shaqran — the Messenger’s freed slave, Osamah bin Zaid and Aws bin Khauli. Al-’Abbas, Al-Fadi and Qathm turned his body round, whereas Osamah and Shaqran poured out water. 'Alî washed him and Aws leant him against his chest.

They shrouded him in three white Sahooli cotton cloth which had neither a headcloth [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/169, Sahîh Muslim, 1/306] nor a casing and inserted him in.

A sort of disagreement arose with regard to a burial place. Abû Bakr said: "I heard the Messenger of Allâh say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies.’" So Abû Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb.

People entered the room ten by ten. They prayed for the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray.

This process took Tuesday long and Wednesday night (i.e. the night which precedes Wednesday morning). ‘Aishah said:"We did not know that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam was being buried till we heard the sound of tools digging the ground at the depth of Wednesday night." [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool, p.471; Ibn Hisham, 2/649-665; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahl M-Athar, p. 38, 39; Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 1/277-286]

From "Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom" by  Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori 


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Fair Orientalists' Statements About The Prophet MohammadIn the quotations below, Western writers have used the word Muhammadanism for Islam. The word Muhammadanism is an absolutely unworthy statement for any learned man to use. Prophet Muhammad's mission was to propagate the worship of the One and Only God (in Arabic Allah), the Creator and Sustainer of the Universe. His mission was essentially the same as that of earlier Prophets of God. In the historical context, many such terminologies about Muhammad, Islam, and Muslims were borrowed from earlier European writings of the Eleventh to the Nineteenth century, a time when ignorance and prejudice prevailed. The quotations below attest to the facts:

Thomas Carlyle in 'Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History,' 1840

"The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammad) are disgraceful to ourselves only."

"A silent great soul, one of that who cannot but be earnest. He was to kindle the world, the world’s Maker had ordered so."

A. S. Tritton in 'Islam,' 1951

The picture of the Muslim soldier advancing with a sword in one hand and the Qur'an in the other is quite false.

De Lacy O'Leary in 'Islam at the Crossroads,' London , 1923.

History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.

Gibbon in 'The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ' 1823

The good sense of Muhammad despised the pomp of royalty. The Apostle of God submitted to the menial offices of the family; he kindled the fire; swept the floor; milked the ewes; and mended with his own hands his shoes and garments. Disdaining the penance and merit of a hermit, he observed without effort of vanity the abstemious diet of an Arab.

Edward Gibbon and Simon Oakley in ‘History of the Saracen Empire,’ London , 1870

"The greatest success of Mohammad’s life was effected by sheer moral force."

“It is not the propagation but the permanency of his religion that deserves our wonder, the same pure and perfect impression which he engraved at Mecca and Medina is preserved after the revolutions of twelve centuries by the Indian, the African and the Turkish proselytes of the Koran....The Mahometans have uniformly withstood the temptation of reducing the object of their faith and devotion to a level with the senses and imagination of man. ‘I believe in One God and Mahomet the Apostle of God’ is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honors of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue, and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion.”

Lane-Poole in 'Speeches and Table Talk of the Prophet Muhammad'

He was the most faithful protector of those he protected, the sweetest and most agreeable in conversation. Those who saw him were suddenly filled with reverence; those who came near him loved him; they who described him would say, "I have never seen his like either before or after." He was of great taciturnity, but when he spoke it was with emphasis and deliberation, and no one could forget what he said...

Annie Besant in 'The Life and Teachings of Mohammad,' Madras , 1932.

It is impossible for anyone who studies the life and character of the great Prophet of Arabia, who knew how he taught and how he lived, to feel anything but reverence for that mighty Prophet, one of the great messengers of the Supreme. And although in what I put to you I shall say many things which may be familiar to many, yet I myself feel, whenever I reread them, a new way of admiration, a new sense of reverence for that mighty Arabian teacher.

W.C. Taylor in 'The History of Muhammadanism and its Sects'

So great was his liberality to the poor that he often left his household unprovided, nor did he content himself with relieving their wants, he entered into conversation with them, and expressed a warm sympathy for their sufferings. He was a firm friend and a faithful ally.

Reverend Bosworth Smith in 'Muhammad and Muhammadanism,' London , 1874.

"Head of the State as well as the Church, he was Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without the Pope's pretensions, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar, without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a police force, without a fixed revenue. If ever a man ruled by a right divine, it was Muhammad, for he had all the powers without their supports. He cared not for the dressings of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life."

"In Mohammadanism every thing is different here. Instead of the shadowy and the mysterious, we have history....We know of the external history of Muhammad....while for his internal history after his mission had been proclaimed, we have a book absolutely unique in its origin, in its preservation....on the Substantial authority of which no one has ever been able to cast a serious doubt."

Edward Montet, 'La Propagande Chretienne et ses Adversaries Musulmans,' Paris 1890. (Also in T.W. Arnold in 'The Preaching of Islam,' London 1913.)

"Islam is a religion that is essentially rationalistic in the widest sense of this term considered etymologically and historically....the teachings of the Prophet, the Qur'an has invariably kept its place as the fundamental starting point, and the dogma of unity of God has always been proclaimed therein with a grandeur a majesty, an invariable purity and with a note of sure conviction, which it is hard to find surpassed outside the pale of Islam....A creed so precise, so stripped of all theological complexities and consequently so accessible to the ordinary understanding might be expected to possess and does indeed possess a marvelous power of winning its way into the consciences of men."

Dr. Gustav Weil in 'History of the Islamic Peoples'

Muhammad was a shining example to his people. His character was pure and stainless. His house, his dress, his food - they were characterized by a rare simplicity. So unpretentious was he that he would receive from his companions no special mark of reverence, nor would he accept any service from his slave which he could do for himself. He was accessible to all and at all times. He visited the sick and was full of sympathy for all. Unlimited was his benevolence and generosity as also was his anxious care for the welfare of the community.

Alphonse de LaMartaine in 'Historie de la Turquie,' Paris , 1854.

"Never has a man set for himself, voluntarily or involuntarily, a more sublime aim, since this aim was superhuman; to subvert superstitions which had been imposed between man and his Creator, to render God unto man and man unto God; to restore the rational and sacred idea of divinity amidst the chaos of the material and disfigured gods of idolatry, then existing. Never has a man undertaken a work so far beyond human power with so feeble means, for he (Muhammad) had in the conception as well as in the execution of such a great design, no other instrument than himself and no other aid except a handful of men living in a corner of the desert. Finally, never has a man accomplished such a huge and lasting revolution in the world, because in less than two centuries after its appearance, Islam, in faith and in arms, reigned over the whole of Arabia, and conquered, in God's name, Persia Khorasan, Transoxania, Western India, Syria, Egypt, Abyssinia, all the known continent of Northern Africa, numerous islands of the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, and part of Gaul.

"If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astonishing results are the three criteria of a human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples, dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and the souls.

"On the basis of a Book, every letter which has become law, he created a spiritual nationality which blend together peoples of every tongue and race. He has left the indelible characteristic of this Muslim nationality the hatred of false gods and the passion for the One and Immaterial God. This avenging patriotism against the profanation of Heaven formed the virtue of the followers of Muhammad; the conquest of one-third the earth to the dogma was his miracle; or rather it was not the miracle of man but that of reason.

"The idea of the unity of God , proclaimed amidst the exhaustion of the fabulous theogonies, was in itself such a miracle that upon it's utterance from his lips it destroyed all the ancient temples of idols and set on fire one-third of the world. His life, his meditations, his heroic reveling against the superstitions of his country, and his boldness in defying the furies of idolatry, his firmness in enduring them for fifteen years in Mecca, his acceptance of the role of public scorn and almost of being a victim of his fellow countrymen: all these and finally, his flight his incessant preaching, his wars against odds, his faith in his success and his superhuman security in misfortune, his forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea and in no manner striving for an empire; his endless prayers, his mystic conversations with God, his death and his triumph after death; all these attest not to an imposture but to a firm conviction which gave him the power to restore a dogma. This dogma was twofold the unity of God and the immateriality of God: the former telling what God is, the latter telling what God is not; the one overthrowing false gods with the sword, the other starting an idea with words.

"Philosopher, Orator, Apostle, Legislator, Conqueror of Ideas, Restorer of Rational beliefs.... The founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?"

Mahatma Gandhi, statement published in 'Young India

I wanted to know the best of the life of one who holds today an undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind.... I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the second volume (of the Prophet's biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of that great life.

Sir George Bernard Shaw in 'The Genuine Islam,' Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936.

"If any religion had the chance of ruling over England , nay Europe within the next hundred years, it could be Islam."

“I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion for from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity."

"I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.”

Michael Hart in 'The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons In History,' New York , 1978.

My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the secular and religious level. ...It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity. ...It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history.

Dr. William Draper in 'History of Intellectual Development of Europe '

Four years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born in Mecca , in Arabia , the man who, of all men, has exercised the greatest influence upon the human race... To be the religious head of many empires, to guide the daily life of one-third of the human race, may perhaps justify the title of a Messenger of God.

J.W.H. Stab in 'Islam and its Founder'

Judged by the smallness of the means at his disposal, and the extent and permanence of the work that he accomplished, his name in world's history shines with a more specious lustre than that of the Prophet of Makkah.To the impulse which he gave numberless dynasties have owed their existence, fair cities and stately palaces and temples have arisen, and wide provinces became obedient to the Faith. And beyond all this, his words have governed the belief of generations, been accepted as their rule of life, and their certain guide to the world to come. At a thousand shrines the voices of the faithful invoke blessings on him, whom they esteem the very Prophet of God, the seal of the Apostles.... Judged by the standards to human renown, the glory of what mortal can compare with his?

Washington Irving in 'Life of Muhammad,' New York , 1920.

His military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory as they would have done had they been effected by selfish purposes. In the time of his greatest power he maintained the same simplicity of manner and appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far from affecting regal state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonial of respect was shown to him.

Arthur Glyn Leonard in 'Islam, Her Moral and Spiritual Values'

It was the genius of Muhammad, the spirit that he breathed into the Arabs through the soul of Islam that exalted them. That raised them out of the lethargy and low level of tribal stagnation up to the high watermark of national unity and empire. It was in the sublimity of Muhammad's deism, the simplicity, the sobriety and purity it inculcated the fidelity of its founder to his own tenets, that acted on their moral and intellectual fiber with all the magnetism of true inspiration.

Charles Stuart Mills in 'History of Mohammadanism'

Deeply read in the volume of nature, though extremely ignorant of letters, his mind could expand into controversy with the wisest of his enemies or contract itself to the apprehension of meanest of his disciples. His simple eloquence was rendered impressive by a manner of mixed dignity and elegance, by the expression of a countenance where the awfulness of his majesty was so well tempered by an amiable sweetness, that it exerted emotions of veneration and love. He was gifted with that authoritative air or genius which alike influences the learned and commands the illiterate.

Philip K. Hitti in 'History of the Arabs'

Within a brief span of mortal life, Muhammad called forth of unpromising material, a nation, never welded before; in a country that was hitherto but a geographical expression he established a religion which in vast areas suppressed Christianity and Judaism, and laid the basis of an empire that was soon to embrace within its far flung boundaries the fairest provinces the then civilized world.

Stanley Lane-Poole in 'Studies in a Mosque'

He was one of those happy few who have attained the supreme joy of making one great truth their very life spring. He was the messenger of One God, and never to his life's end did he forget who he was or the message which was the marrow of his being. He brought his tidings to his people with a grand dignity sprung from the consciousness of his high office, together with a most sweet humility.

Rodwell in the Preface to his translation of the Holy Qur'an

Mohammad's career is a wonderful instance of the force and life that resides in him who possesses an intense faith in God and in the unseen world. He will always be regarded as one of those who have had that influence over the faith, morals and whole earthly life of their fellow men, which none but a really great man ever did, or can exercise; and whose efforts to propagate a great verity will prosper.

W. Montgomery Watt in 'Muhammad at Mecca ,' Oxford , 1953.

His readiness to undergo persecution for his beliefs, the high moral character of the men who believed in him and looked up to him as a leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement - all argue his fundamental integrity. To suppose Muhammad an impostor raises more problems that it solves. Moreover, none of the great figures of history is so poorly appreciated in the West as Muhammad.... Thus, not merely must we credit Muhammad with essential honesty and integrity of purpose, if we are to understand him at all; if we are to correct the errors we have inherited from the past, we must not forget the conclusive proof is a much stricter requirement than a show of plausibility, and in a matter such as this only to be attained with difficulty.

D. G. Hogarth in ' Arabia '

Serious or trivial, his daily behavior has instituted a canon which millions observe this day with conscious memory. No one regarded by any section of the human race as Perfect Man has ever been imitated so minutely. The conduct of the founder of Christianity has not governed the ordinary life of his followers. Moreover, no founder of a religion has left on so solitary an eminence as the Muslim apostle.

Washington Irving 'Mahomet and His Successors'

He was sober and abstemious in his diet and a rigorous observer of fasts. He indulged in no magnificence of apparel, the ostentation of a petty mind; neither was his simplicity in dress affected but a result of real disregard for distinction from so trivial a source.

In his private dealings he was just. He treated friends and strangers, the rich and poor, the powerful and weak, with equity, and was beloved by the common people for the affability with which he received them, and listened to their complaints.

His military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory, as they would have done had they been effected for selfish purposes. In the time of his greatest power he maintained the same simplicity of manners and appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far from affecting a regal state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonials of respect were shown to him. If he aimed at a universal dominion, it was the dominion of faith; as to the temporal rule which grew up in his hands, as he used it without ostentation, so he took no step to perpetuate it in his family.

James Michener in ‘Islam: The Misunderstood Religion,’ Reader’s Digest, May 1955, pp. 68-70.

"No other religion in history spread so rapidly as Islam. The West has widely believed that this surge of religion was made possible by the sword. But no modern scholar accepts this idea, and the Qur’an is explicit in the support of the freedom of conscience."

"Muhammad, the inspired man who founded Islam, was born about A.D. 570 into an Arabian tribe that worshiped idols. Orphaned at birth, he was always particularly solicitous of the poor and needy, the widow and the orphan, the slave and the downtrodden. At twenty he was already a successful businessman, and soon became director of camel caravans for a wealthy widow. When he reached twenty-five his employer recognizing his merit, proposed marriage. Even though she was fifteen years older, he married her and as long as she lived remained a devoted husband."

“Like almost every major prophet before him, Muhammad fought shy of serving as the transmitter of God’s word sensing his own inadequacy. But the Angel commanded ‘Read’. So far as we know, Muhammad was unable to read or write, but he began to dictate those inspired words which would soon revolutionize a large segment of the earth: "There is one God"."

“In all things Muhammad was profoundly practical. When his beloved son Ibrahim died, an eclipse occurred and rumors of God 's personal condolence quickly arose. Whereupon Muhammad is said to have announced, ‘An eclipse is a phenomenon of nature. It is foolish to attribute such things to the death or birth of a human being'."

“At Muhammad's own death an attempt was made to deify him, but the man who was to become his administrative successor killed the hysteria with one of the noblest speeches in religious history: ‘If there are any among you who worshiped Muhammad, he is dead. But if it is God you Worshiped, He lives for ever'.”

Lawrence E. Browne in ‘The Prospects of Islam,’ 1944

Incidentally these well-established facts dispose of the idea so widely fostered in Christian writings that the Muslims, wherever they went, forced people to accept Islam at the point of the sword.

K. S. Ramakrishna Rao in 'Mohammed: The Prophet of Islam,' 1989

My problem to write this monograph is easier, because we are not generally fed now on that (distorted) kind of history and much time need not be spent on pointing out our misrepresentations of Islam. The theory of Islam and sword, for instance, is not heard now in any quarter worth the name. The principle of Islam that “there is no compulsion in religion” is well known.

Jules Masserman in 'Who Were Histories Great Leaders?' in TIME Magazine, July 15, 1974

Perhaps the greatest leader of all times was Mohammad, who combined all the three functions. To a lesser degree Moses did the same.